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Failure of the menstrual cycle after 40-45 years: causes

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As you know, after 40 years in a woman's body, the amount of hormones produced is significantly reduced, and the probability of a successful conception after the first intimacy is 5%. These processes indicate the beginning of the extinction of menstrual function. And although in 40 years the organs of the reproductive system should work normally, some circumstances may affect the premature decrease in their activity. As a result, a woman is more likely to experience monthly delay problems.

There are other reasons for the violation of the cycle of menstruation, which are not due to a decrease in menstrual function. These include the following:

  1. Psychogenic. Delayed menstruation occurs due to severe stress. Unfortunately, even with age, the number of things for which a woman feels responsibility and worries does not decrease. Stressful situations at work or at home can have an overwhelmingly negative effect on a woman’s well-being, leading to a delayed menstruation. You should also take into account the general state of health at this age, and the fact that even the most insignificant psycho-emotional experiences are more difficult to endure than at a younger age.
  2. Emotiogenic. Delays associated with strong impressions and emotions. They can be both positive and negative.
  3. Neurogenic. Cycle failure often occurs because of the psychological stress that a woman experiences at work or because of an important event that should occur in a child’s life.
  4. Weight lifting and excessive exercise. Most women who are no longer going to give birth, cease to pay attention to how they are subjected to loads. They try to do all the homework themselves, ranging from rearrangement of furniture, ending with daily carrying heavy bags. Such an impact on the fragile body provokes a failure of menstruation.
  5. The presence of pathologies of female genitals. It is not for nothing that gynecologists insist on regular examinations and visits of specialists for women who have crossed the age mark of 40 years. During this period, the risk of the development of various diseases that cause delayed menstruation increases. The most common illnesses include ovarian cyst, endometriosis, uterine myoma, chronic adnexitis, endometritis. An abortion, removal of a polyp, or any other gynecological manipulation also leads to a delay in menstruation.
  6. Chronic pathology. Violation of menstruation can be caused by a disease that develops in a woman’s body for a long time. For example, kidney stones, heart disease, diabetes, diseases of the digestive system. Any serious disruption of the functioning of one of the body systems inevitably affects the menstrual cycle. During colds, the flu is also possible some cycle shifts.
  7. Endocrine causes of delay. Cycle failure occurs due to abnormalities in the thyroid gland or diabetes.
  8. Improper diet and excess body mass. A woman must adhere to a balanced diet. The body must necessarily be saturated with necessary vitamins and microelements. The lack of any nutrients in the body affects the proper functioning of the ovaries, causing a menstruation delay. The same effect is observed with obesity and with excessive thinness.
  9. Delayed menstruation due to medication. Some drugs can trigger a cycle failure. This temporary effect often passes after the end of the course of therapy.

Violation of the cycle of menstruation after 40 years can also be accompanied by a change in the amount of discharge that is usual for a woman. Of course, all the processes in the body at this time can bring inconvenience and psychological discomfort to the fair sex.

To make the period from 40 to 50 years more favorable for the health of the woman and her psycho-emotional state, she should take care of herself. When work is associated with constant stress and tension, it is necessary to minimize such negative effects. If this is not possible, then it makes sense to think about changing the type of activity.

What happens to the body of a woman in 45 years

So, to find out the cause of the failure of the menstrual cycle after 40 years, it is necessary to analyze the woman’s nutrition, her psychoemotional state, physical exertion and other factors that could provoke this failure. Disruption of the menstrual cycle after 45 years should not come as a surprise. Just at this age, the breaks between menstruation increase, that is, irregular discharge becomes a kind of norm. If the duration of menstruation exceeds 7 days and is characterized by heavy bleeding, it is necessary to be examined by a specialist.

Estrogen is the main female hormone that regulates the work and functioning of the organs of the reproductive system. After 45 years, the activity of the ovaries, and with it the production of this hormone is reduced. Gradually, the time gap between menstruation becomes more and more each time, until menopause begins.

The period of 40-45 years is premenopausal. The main cause of menstrual irregularities is non-cyclical ovarian function, which provided for the synthesis of sex hormones, as well as a decrease in the level of estrogen in the blood.

Every woman deals with changes in the body in different ways. In some, hormonal changes are expressed through mood swings, sleep disturbance, irritability. Others pursue physiological manifestations, for example, increased sweating, accelerated heart rate, instant sensation of heat (hot flashes).

Hormonal restructuring of the body affects the skin of a woman. Since the process of renewal and regeneration of the cells of the dermis slows down significantly, it becomes more flabby and dull. Without proper care, the skin of the face and body quickly becomes wrinkled. Replacing hormone therapy and the use of cosmetic, caring means helps to correct the situation.

During this period, most women experience some difficulty in the intimate sphere. Due to mood swings, they often cannot reciprocate their partner. In addition, the weak sex indicate the appearance of itching and vaginal dryness. The likelihood of developing urinary infections increases, as the mucous membranes of the genital organs cease to perform protective functions at the proper level.

Thus, if at the age of 45, a woman’s cycle of menstruation has increased, the reasons may lie in the irregularity of the production of the hormone estrogen. And this means that the process of extinction of the menstrual function has begun, and the woman should take care that the onset of menopause is for her as calmly as possible. Now it is possible, thanks to various hormonal, homeopathic medicines, as well as herbal remedies.

How to treat a menstrual cycle disorder in adulthood

Not many women can boast that they regularly visit a gynecologist. The reasons for this are many: the lack of time, the reluctance to visit the medical facility once again, and the lack of faith that the preclimax state can be improved. Of course, earlier medicine could offer little more than the fair sex in such a difficult period. Drugs also did not differ particularly effective and did not facilitate the well-being. However, effective herbal remedies have been developed at the moment, as well as homeopathic remedies that facilitate the life of a woman, as well as those that can return her smile and good mood. It is also possible to carry out hormone replacement therapy, which according to numerous reviews gives good results.

How to restore the menstruation cycle after 40 years, you should contact your doctor for advice. Self-medication and self-selection of drugs is not recommended. Firstly, most drugs have contraindications, and secondly, it is possible to aggravate the course of hidden pathologies in a woman’s body. For this reason, the gynecologist may recommend additional examinations and tests, which are very useful for women of 40 years. To begin with, the likelihood of uterine fibroids, cancer and other pathologies is excluded. Only after this is assigned the appropriate complex therapy.

For the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms such as sensations of fever (hot flashes), excessive sweating and attacks of heart palpitations, special drugs Estrovel, Relaxil, Inoklim are used. For example, the biologically active food additive Chi-Klim Alanin is used as a supportive. additional funds for hormone replacement therapy. Preparations and tablets in violation of the menstruation cycle should be prescribed by a qualified specialist. Therefore, for the selection of a suitable tool, it is recommended to sign up for an examination by a gynecologist, who, after collecting anamnesis, will be able to recommend the means with the greatest effect for each particular patient.

Treatment of climpiric symptoms by folk methods can be no less effective than with the help of medicines. The most popular products are:

  1. Dill water. Dill seeds pour hot water (not boiling water) and leave to infuse for about an hour. After taking this tool, there is a reduction in the number of tides, as well as the normalization of sleep.
  2. Oregano tea It relieves intestinal hot flashes, soothes and reduces the profusion of bleeding.
  3. Homemade juices. During menopause, a woman should receive a rich, complex diet. Her body should not need any vitamins or microelements. To do this, in your daily diet should include natural, healthy juices (preferably homemade).
  4. Peony tincture It is an excellent tool to reduce sweating, normalize sleep, as well as other climatic manifestations.

Violation of the monthly cycle, the causes of which are individual, is not necessarily a sign of disease. However, this phenomenon requires an immediate examination by a gynecologist to rule out any diseases and confirm the normal course of the pre-menopausal period.

Physiology of women after 40

For most women, the childbearing period ends at 40–45 years. This is due to age: the body activates aging processes in the reproductive system, starting with ovarian depletion, lowering their sensitivity to the effects of follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The ovaries stop producing estradiol, due to which its blood level drops.

The anterior lobe of the pituitary begins to actively produce gonadotropic hormone, the blood level of FSH, LH rises, which is why hormonal imbalance and menstrual cycle occur after 40 years.

Gonadotropins provoke a strong depletion of the ovaries, while critical days can occur, but their duration may vary. Gradually, under the influence of such violations of the menstruation cycle of 45 years, its duration increases. As a result, there is a complete cessation of menstruation.

Along with these processes in the pituitary gland triggers failures in the cyclical nature of the release of gonadotropins. Gradually, they cease to affect the ovaries, which are in the active stage of exhaustion. The listed causes of a cycle violation after 40 years provoke the suppression of ovarian function, and this is associated with the appearance of structural changes in them, such as:

  • activation of the death of oocytes,
  • atrophic processes in primordial follicles,
  • thinning of granulosis, stroma,
  • hyalinosis sclerosis.

These factors provoke a violation of the cyclical nature of menstruation after 45 years due to the lack of the possibility of ovulation, insufficiency of the luteal phase. This affects what happens to the woman's body: oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea develops.

Women of different ages depend on female sex hormones, after 40–45 years, hormonal imbalance causes depletion of the endometrium of the uterus. Also during this period, opposite processes may occur - diffuse, focal hyperplastic changes. Gradually, the size of the uterus is reduced to 4-5 centimeters.

These reasons for the failure of the menstruation cycle also affect the general condition of the woman. This is due to the fact that many tissues and organs have receptors that perceive estrogen levels, and during menopause or premenopausal it decreases significantly.

Most often, such changes are smoothed by the adaptation mechanisms of the body, blocking the processes of appearance of unpleasant symptoms. But in some women the activity of these functions is insufficient, because of which the menopausal syndrome manifests itself.

Periods of a woman's life after 40

After forty years, many women begin to depress the childbearing function. The process of violation of the menstrual cycle is divided into several stages:

Perimenopause combines premenopause, menopause, 2 years after the last normal menstruation.

Menopausal Transition Period

The main reason for the violation of the cycle of menstruation after 40 years is premenopause. It begins at the age of 40–45 years and lasts until the end of menstruation. It is characterized by the onset of a decrease in the activity of the hormonal function of the ovaries, the occurrence of the primary symptoms of menopause. This period passes unnoticed only for 5-10% of women.

At the age of 45, menstrual irregularity caused by premenopause, proceeds to the next stage - menopause, which occurs with the last normal menstruation after 45 years, lasts a year.

Menopause in a woman’s life is premature if it started at 37–40 years old, and early at 41–45. This stage may occur earlier for a couple of years when smoking, fasting, alcohol addiction.

Postmenopause

This stage begins from menopause, that is, after the onset of the last normal menstruation, and also within 1 year after it. There is a postmenopausal stage up to 65–70 years, gradually flowing into the old age.

Symptoms of menopause

Symptoms of menopause are divided into 3 groups:

  • early - appear before the end of menstruation (during the transition to menopause),
  • medium-term - start 2-4 years after menopause,
  • late - manifest 4–5 years after menopause.

In almost 50% of women, menopause has a severe character with pronounced symptoms. A mild form of transition is observed only in completely healthy representatives of the weaker sex, and at the same time, menstrual disorders in them are observed later.

The failure of the cycle of menstruation in the fifth dozen is manifested by vasomotor and psycho-emotional symptoms.

Irregular and short-lived menstruation provoke the appearance of vasomotor symptoms, such as:

  • feeling of heart rate,
  • feeling of fever,
  • increased sweating,
  • hypertension.

With the physiological delay of menstruation, a change in psycho-emotional state and the appearance of such symptoms:

  • memory impairment
  • insomnia,
  • irritability,
  • low libido,
  • depression,
  • headaches and dizziness.

The moderate symptoms of menstrual irregularities include the appearance of dryness, itching, burning sensations in the vagina, pain during sexual contact, urinary incontinence, wrinkles on the skin, increased fragility of the nail plates, hair loss and weakening.

All the above symptoms may occur within five years after the violation of the menstruation cycle in 45 years.

These symptoms of menopause are associated with the development of diseases of vital systems and organs. Causes of failure of the menstrual cycle after 40 years lead to the emergence of such problems as:

  • cardiovascular pathologies,
  • postmenopausal osteoporosis,
  • Alzheimer's disease.

In order to avoid the development of dangerous pathologies, it is necessary to start treatment for menopausal syndrome in a timely manner. The only effective method is hormone replacement therapy. It should begin with the appearance of early signs of menopause. On average, it takes 1–3 years, but the duration can be extended to 5 years.

Diagnostics

With complaints of heavy periods after 45 years, women turn to gynecologists at women's clinics. When bleeding requires urgent hospitalization in a gynecological hospital.

The task of the doctor is to find out the cause, localization of the process, assess the degree of blood loss, its intensity. For this purpose, conduct a gynecological examination, conduct laboratory and instrumental methods of examination.

Laboratory room

With this diagnostic method, the level of various blood parameters - hemoglobin, clotting time, liver enzymes, serum iron, hormones, tumor markers - is determined. All studies are carried out in the laboratory. In addition, investigate analyzes of discharge from the vagina, urine. To clarify these indicators, gynecologists prescribe:

  • General analysis of blood and urine.
  • Биохимический анализ крови, коагулограмму.
  • Гормональное обследование – ХГЧ, эстрадиол, ФСГ, прогестерон, ТТГ, свободный Т4, 17-оксипрогестерон, ЛГ.
  • Определение онкомаркеров – СА199, СА125.
  • ПАП-тест.
  • Analysis of discharge for purity of the vaginal flora.

Having data from these studies, experts can identify anemia, abnormalities in the liver, blood coagulation, hormonal status, suspect a malignant process, inflammatory diseases of the female genital tract.

Additional

Based on the data of instrumental methods of examination, exclude a number of endometrial diseases that are organic in nature - uterine and cervical malignancies, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, submucous uterine fibroids. For this purpose, it is recommended:

The most dangerous are the so-called asymptomatic (not causing complaints) diseases, which are detected in women of the menopausal period in professional examinations of women in 5% of cases, and therefore, after 45 years, it is recommended to do an ultrasound of the uterus and appendages twice during the year.

The required amount of therapy depends on the cause of the abundant menses. The task of the doctor is to stop the pathological process and to achieve the absence of relapse. In the presence of benign diseases of the endometrium, which caused the bleeding, they perform hysteroscopy, separate diagnostic curettage of the uterus, endometrial ablation. The presence of uterine fibroids involves the removal of an organ with appendages.

Malignant neoplasms are treated in specialized cancer centers, the method and amount of therapy is chosen depending on the stage and degree of malignancy of the tumor. If the cause of bleeding is hormonal imbalance - stop the bleeding with hormonal and hemostatic drugs.

Blood clotting disorders and liver diseases are treated, involving concomitant specialists - a hematologist, a hepatologist. Endometrial receptors are affected by prostaglandin-binding drugs - Naproxen and others. They are taken during bleeding. Drugs that reduce blood loss include:

  • Ditsinon, etamzilat.
  • Vikasol.
  • Aminocaproic acid.
  • Pamba
  • Tranexam.
  • Ambien.

In the absence of the effect of hemostatic therapy, the presence of changes in the level of hormones, after diagnostic curettage, hormonal hemostasis is prescribed with the help of natural estrogens: estradiol valerate, 17 beta estradiol.

Selection of a hormonal drug for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia as a cause of bleeding in patients aged 45-47 may be difficult due to the presence of contraindications to therapy.

At this age, diseases that limit their intake are often detected. If there are no obstacles to the appointment of this type of treatment, it is recommended:

  • Norethisterone,
  • Buserelin,
  • Hydroxyprogesterone capronate,
  • Goserelin,
  • Medroxyprogesterone,
  • Triptorelin

The drugs are prescribed under the supervision of a physician for six months, with dynamic observation every three months, in the absence of complaints, studies of the blood coagulation system, sonography, the PAP test.

For the correction of climacteric disorders in the absence of hyperplastic processes, hormone replacement therapy is recommended for three years. In the early stages of menopause, it is considered advisable to prescribe drugs containing estrogen and gestagens:

Before the appointment of replacement therapy, hereditary predisposition to malignant processes, the presence of concomitant diseases, the condition of the venous and coagulation systems, the structure of the mammary gland, addiction to tobacco, and alcohol are studied. In the absence of contraindications, the drug is selected individually. An alternative to hormone therapy is endometrial ablation.

Abundant periods after 45 years should be a reason for timely access to a doctor. Hormonal and neuroendocrine changes at this age contribute to the development of benign and malignant diseases of the female genital organs:

  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding,
  • adenomyosis,
  • uterine fibroids,
  • endometrial hyperplastic processes,
  • ovarian neoplasms,
  • breast tumors.

Existing modern therapies allow you to choose the most appropriate and effective treatment option.

Menstrual cycle from 40 years: what happens to the body

Menstruation - uterine bleeding, which is the natural state of the female body. Normally, it occurs regularly with a frequency of 21-35 days and a duration of 4-7 days. Spotting occurs as a result of rejection of the endometrium of the uterus, if fertilization has not occurred. This process is regulated by the female sex hormone estrogen produced by the ovaries.

Monthly after 40 years tend to change. This time is marked as the aging of the female body, which is reflected in the onset of menopause. Under the influence of hormonal imbalance, disturbances begin in the frequency and duration of the cycle and discharge.

After 40-45 years, menopause begins, as a result of which the menstrual cycle and the abundance of discharge changes.

Features climacteric changes

Do not think that the menstrual cycle after 40 years changes dramatically. This process lasts 2-8 years, it is characterized by a gradual decrease in the level of estrogen. And the period of 40-45 years is very relative. When a woman starts climacteric changes depends on her individual characteristics, the presence of chronic diseases, nutrition, how many bad habits she has.

Over time, the ovaries begin to produce less and less estrogen, its amount decreases gradually, although the balance is constantly upset, then up or down. The number of follicles with ovules also decreases (their number is established even during the intrauterine development of girls). Therefore, it is difficult to talk about the stability of menstruation. So, they can go for several months, then stop for a certain period.

The stages of menopause, their effect on the menstrual cycle after 40

It should be understood that with the transition of the fortieth year, changes in the menstrual cycle will gradually begin. It is his failures that indicate the beginning of irreversible processes in the body.

In the climax, there are 3 stages:

  • Premenopause. During this period, periods of 40-45 years can go more often and more abundant than usual, or, on the contrary, significant breaks occur, and the duration of bleeding is only 2 days. This is considered a normal monthly cycle. The eggs mature less frequently, the level of estrogen is constantly changing, then decreasing, then significantly increasing. But the woman still has the opportunity to become pregnant. The duration of the stage is up to 5-7 years.
  • Menopause. It occurs after the last menstruation and lasts 12 months. At this time, no blood discharge. To confirm the onset of this phase is possible by passing the analysis on the level of the hormone FSH. It is performed at least 6 months after the last month.
  • Postmenopause. This is the final stage, which lasts the rest of his life. It comes after menopause. This period is characterized by a complete cessation of estrogen production, complete ovarian dystrophy and, as a result, the complete absence of normal uterine bleeding.

Menstrual cycle after 40 years: possible pathologies

In the event of irregularities in the cycle in women after 40-45 years, it is necessary to immediately consult a gynecologist. They can be not only the result of a natural decrease in estrogen, but also indicate the presence of pathological processes or abnormalities. There are 2 options: the complete absence of menstruation or too abundant discharge with great blood loss. Consider both options in more detail.

Medication may affect the duration of the menstrual cycle after 45 years.

Excessive bleeding

Anxiety should cause one of the following symptoms:

  • Excessive bleeding. This is evidenced by frequent (oftener than usual) change of gaskets or tampons.
  • The appearance of bleeding within the monthly cycle.
  • Bleeding lasts more than 7 days (the norm is 4-7 days).

Menorrhagia can be a symptom of developing endometriosis or uterine fibroids - characteristic of the menopausal period diseases of the female genital tract. Various tumor neoplasms are also possible. There are a lot of variants of problems, therefore careful diagnostics with treatment prescription is necessary.

Dirty after 40 years

The decrease in profusion, the increase in the frequency of menstruation after 40-45 years is called amenorrhea. In most cases, this is normal for the onset of menopause. But an increased basal temperature during the discharge, lower abdominal pain, and the duration of “daub” for more than 6-7 days will allow to suspect that something was wrong. These symptoms can be caused by a large list of diseases, for example, polyps in the uterine cavity, tumors, abnormalities in the thyroid gland or adrenal glands. Also, delays or extremely scarce discharge can be the result of medication, stress, surgery, complications after a severe viral infection. Also at this age should not exclude the likelihood of pregnancy. All these cases require medical advice. You can make an appointment with a specialist, get medical information for free here http: //45plus.rf/registration/.

The absence of menstruation after 40 years may indicate the occurrence of pregnancy.

What are the evidence of heavy menstruation at the age of "for"?

But when after 45 years everything, as before, immediately visit the gynecologist. At the age of 40 to 45 years, there are frequent cases when there is no menstruation at all. This indicates a climax that came earlier. Basically, menopause manifests itself in 51-55 years.

Some women after 45 years have problems when their periods are heavy. If earlier regular menstruation lasted from three to five days and the discharge was average, then in 45 menstruation lasts longer and becomes more abundant: “it pours like a bucket”.

This is the first bell that menopause "just around the corner." Go to a specialist gynecologist for advice to avoid subsequent complications. Such symptoms can warn about various diseases.

A specialist using ultrasound and laboratory tests will conduct an examination for the presence of various pathologies. If the diagnosis does not confirm the disease, then hormone treatment will be prescribed to make menopause easier for you.

Laboratory analysis will confirm or refute the onset of menopause

Scanty

For some women who reach 45 years of age, menstruation stops. In others, they still continue, but the discharge in small quantities, they are characterized by smearing "clots" that were present during normal periods. The cycle loses its regularity and functions in the range from 25 to 40 days. This is an indicator that the ovaries have stopped working at 100%, and in the near future there will be menopause.

Often scanty monthly pass in conjunction with the phenomena:

  • feeling unwell,
  • there are frequent hot flashes
  • there are problems with sleep,
  • sweating increases
  • reduced sexual desire
  • there are attacks of tachycardia,
  • dryness and burning in the vagina,
  • hair fall out,
  • skin becomes less elastic and dry.

If you find any of the above symptoms, then menopause does not take long.

In the case when smearing discharge does not pass within six to seven days, you should start to worry. And if the temperature rises or there is pain in the pubic area or pain in the ovaries, be sure to contact a specialist. Sometimes these symptoms lead to illnesses that are inflammatory or even to oncology. Consultation and examination by a gynecologist will help you to find out one hundred percent problem.

Tachycardia may accompany scanty menses.

The reason for long periods after 45 years

If the menstrual cycle is delayed, you will be concerned about frequent bleeding - this is not a good sign. Frequent pathologies in gynecology are women after 45 years of age, and prolonged menstruation is warned about them.

  • May progress the inflammatory process.
  • One of the options - the disease of the genital organs.
  • More coagulation disorders occur.
  • Long periods can be caused by prolonged medication.

What do they show?

Frequent cases when monthly go several times a month, or there are bleedings between monthly. If such phenomena are present in the body of a woman - this is manifested by polymenorrhea. It appears in women over 45 years of age as a result of the weakened work of the ovaries that produce estrogen. It is a regulator of the duration and frequency of menstruation.

In the case when menstruation is not related to the work of the ovaries and the diagnosis of polymenorrhea was not confirmed, other diseases manifest themselves. After 45 years, a woman should listen to her body carefully and, if necessary, seek help from a medical institution.

Polymenorrhea is called too frequent bleeding.

Causes of delayed menstruation after 45

In fact, there are a lot of reasons that affect the delay of menstruation after 45 years. Let us dwell on the main ones. As mentioned earlier, one of the reasons is the extinction of the ovaries. Frequent failures occur in stressful situations and in the psychological state of a woman. Emotional delay in menstruation occurs when a woman is in a state of strong impression. And this is not only bad, but something good that overwhelms the senses. Delayed menstruation may be gynecological diseases of the reproductive system of organs.

After 45, frequent physical, severe mental stress can be a source of delays. When a woman allows her way of life to drift, does not adhere to the regime, gains extra pounds, often suffers from colds, which leads to a weakened immunity - this is a number of reasons for long-term failures and the fact that menstruation can linger. And the causes may be diseases of the endocrinological system, an enlarged thyroid gland. Certain drugs are a source of failure.

The first thing that should be done by every woman after 45 years of age, when the delay in menstruation lasts more than seven days, is to buy a pregnancy test and make sure it is not available.

If the test is negative, and the state of health is normal, there are no certain pains, fatigue, irritability, fever, then we can wait until one month passes. And then be sure to consult a doctor.

Elimination of menstrual disorders after 45 years

In many cases, the treatment of menstrual disorders for women after 45 years of age is hormone therapy. With its help the state of health improves, the manifestation of menopause becomes less painful. If a woman is diagnosed with oncology, then hormonal treatment cannot be used. Therefore, every loving and self-respecting woman should turn to a qualified specialist after 45 years of age, undergo an examination, and only then draw conclusions about whether her monthly periods are in order to take the drugs.

Causes of irregular menstruation and treatment of menstrual disorders

It is difficult to meet a woman, especially at the present time, who has not had a breakdown or a menstrual cycle at least once. Such shifts in the form of delays, both long and short, or manifested by shortening the cycle, are completely unsafe for the female body, because regular menstruation reflects the mental and physical condition of the woman.

The menstrual cycle (many women call it their own way, as the “menstruation cycle”) plays the role of a biological clock of the body and any violations are the first bell of as yet unrecognized diseases. Why there is a violation of the menstrual cycle - the question interests not only the representatives of the weaker sex, but also the doctors.

A bit about menstruation and the menstrual cycle

The first menstruation or menarche occurs in girls about 12 to 14 years old, and the more south a child lives, the earlier her periods begin. Menstruation ends at about 45 - 55 years (this period is called premenopausal).

Menstruation is the rejection or desquamation of the functional layer of the uterine lining in response to a decrease in progesterone production. That is why gynecologists like to repeat that menstruation is bloody tears of the uterus due to an unfilled pregnancy. To understand this definition, it is worth remembering the physiology of the menstrual cycle. As you know, the monthly cycle of a woman is divided into 3 phases:

  • In the first. follicular phase estrogens are produced. the action of which causes the maturation of follicles. Of these follicles, the main or dominant follicle is released, subsequently a mature egg leaves.
  • The second phase is the shortest (about a day), it is during this period that the main follicle is torn, and the mature egg is released “free”, ready for a meeting with “zhivchiki” and fertilization.
  • In the third phase. luteal, begins the synthesis of progesterone by the corpus luteum, which originated at the site of the ruptured follicle. Именно прогестерон обуславливает подготовку эндометрия к имплантации оплодотворенной яйцеклетки. В том случае, если зачатие не произошло, желтое тело медленно «умирает» (регрессирует), выработка прогестерона падает и начинается отторжение эндометрия, то есть месячные.
  • Next, estrogen production is gaining momentum again and the cycle repeats.

From all this, it becomes clear that the menstrual cycle refers to cyclic changes that occur in the body after a strictly defined time.

  • The normal duration of the monthly cycle is 21 - 35 days. Deviation from the usual rhythm in one direction or another for 3–5 days is not a pathology, and longer shifts should alert the woman.
  • Monthly normal lasts from three days to a week and does not deliver pronounced discomfort to the woman.
  • The amount of blood lost during menstruation does not exceed 100-140 ml.

The regulation of the menstrual cycle coincides on 5 levels:

  • The first is the cerebral cortex. that is, all emotional experiences can lead to irregular periods. For example, it is known that in wartime, women had no monthly periods, which has its name - “wartime amenorrhea”.
  • The second level of regulation is the hypothalamus. which synthesizes releasing factors that influence the following.
  • The third level is the pituitary gland. In the latter, hormones are produced: follicle-stimulating and luteinizing, or gonadotropic hormones.
  • Under their influence in the ovaries - the fourth level begins to be synthesized by estrogen or progesterone (depending on the phase of the cycle).
  • The fifth level of regulation is the uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina. Changes in the endometrium take place in the uterus, the fallopian tubes are peristalted, helping to meet the egg and spermatozoid, the epithelium is renewed in the vagina.

What breaks the cycle of menstruation?

The causes of menstrual irregularities are very numerous and varied. Conditionally they can be defined in 3 groups.

The first includes external factors, that is, the physiological effects on the cycle. In this case we are talking about the influence of etiological factors on the first level of regulation of the menstrual cycle - the cerebral cortex:

  • climate change
  • nervous exhaustion
  • persistent and prolonged stress
  • character warehouse
  • change in diet and other.

The second includes various pathological states, not only in the field of the reproductive system, but also of the whole organism of the woman as a whole.

The third group includes the effects of drugs, both when they are taken and when they are canceled. These may be hormonal contraceptive pills (see contraceptive pills), glucocorticoids, anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, anticonvulsant drugs and antidepressants, and others.

Factors due to pathological conditions:

  • Conditioned by ovarian pathology

These include impaired communication between the ovaries and the pituitary gland, stimulation of ovulation with drugs, ovarian cancers, insufficiency of the second phase of the cycle, occupational hazards (vibration, radiation, chemical exposure), ovarian surgery (removal of most ovarian tissue), urinary trauma and formation fistula and stuff.

  • Impaired interaction between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland

Insufficient or excessive release of releasing factors and gonadotropic hormones, pituitary tumors, hemorrhage into the pituitary or necrosis, brain tumors that compress the pituitary / hypothalamus.

It does not matter genital or extragenital endometriosis, in any case, the disease is hormonal in nature and leads to an imbalance of hormones.

  • Impaired blood clotting (hemophilia, genetic pathology).
  • Diseases of the liver and gallbladder disease.
  • Curettage of the uterus - artificial interruption of pregnancy or therapeutic and diagnostic curettage contribute to damage to the endometrium, which interferes with its growth or may be complicated by inflammation of the uterus and appendages.
  • Hormone-dependent tumors - breast cancer. uterus, adrenal glands, thyroid gland.
  • Adrenal diseases (tumors, injuries, etc.).
  • Polyps mucous membrane of the uterus.
  • Chronic endometritis - a full-fledged endometrium is not formed.
  • Rapid weight changes - losing weight or obesity leads to a failure of the menstrual cycle, because adipose tissue produces estrogens.
  • Abnormalities of the uterus - sexual infantilism, a septum in the uterus, a double uterus and others.
  • Infections - both infections in childhood (rubella, chickenpox) and sexually transmitted infections can adversely affect the ovaries.
  • Pathology of the uterus - this item includes uterine tumors and endometrial pathology (hyperplasia).
  • Mental illness (schizophrenia, epilepsy, alcoholic psychosis).
  • Endocrine pathology.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities (for example, the karyotype 46HU with the female phenotype).
  • Arterial hypertension (see drugs for high blood pressure).
  • Bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse).
  • Hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis.

How does a menstrual cycle disorder manifest?

Various shifts during the monthly cycle are defined as a violation. The monthly cycle can vary both in duration and in the nature of menstrual bleeding:

  • With amenorrhea, menstrual periods are absent for six months or more (primary primary amenorrhea is isolated, when the cycle disorder began from the onset of menstruation, and secondary amenorrhea — the disturbed cycle appeared after a period of its normal course)
  • Oligomenorrhea - if menstruation occurs once every 3 to 4 months,
  • Oppenmenorrhea - short and extremely scarce periods (no more than 1 - 2 days),
  • Hyperpolymenorrhea - very abundant periods, but the cycle duration does not change,
  • Menorrhagia is prolonged and abundant menstruation (lasting more than 10 days),
  • Metrorrhagia - irregular bleeding that may appear in the middle of the monthly cycle,
  • Proiomenorrhea - the duration of the menstrual cycle is less than three weeks (that is, frequent periods),
  • Algomenorrhea - extremely painful menstruation, leading to disability (also divided into primary and secondary),
  • Dysmenorrhea - any violations of the menstrual cycle, accompanied by pain during menstruation and autonomic disorders: headache, emotional lability, excessive sweating, nausea / vomiting).

Irregular periods during adolescence

In adolescent girls, menstrual irregularity is quite common. This is due to physiological reasons. That is, the hormonal background has not yet been established and the duration of both the cycle itself and the menstruation may be different each time. The norm is the formation of a cycle for 1 - 2 years.

Pathological factors, causes of irregular menstruation include:

  • head injuries
  • infectious lesions of the brain and its membranes
  • propensity for colds
  • vegetative dystonia
  • obesity
  • sclerocystic ovaries and genital infections.

Equally important is the craze for girls diets, which leads not only to a significant loss of body weight, but also to hypovitaminosis and menstrual disorders. In addition, the nature of the girl also affects the regularity of the menstrual cycle (too emotional, impulsive or aggressive).

Also play a role in violation of the cycle:

  • early and promiscuous sex
  • bad habits
  • malformations of the reproductive system

Disrupted menstrual cycle in girls can result in a complication such as juvenile uterine bleeding. In this case, menstrual periods last more than a week and are abundant, which leads to anemization of the child (see iron preparations for anemia). Juvenile bleeding is usually triggered by either an infectious process or a nervous strain.

Violation of the premenopausal cycle

With climax, which, as indicated above, occurs in the region of 45 - 55 years old, in addition to irregularities in the menstrual cycle, vegetative-vascular disorders are disturbed in metabolic processes and psycho-emotional state (hot flashes, emotional lability, osteoporosis).

Disorders in the premenopausal menstrual cycle are associated with the extinction of the childbearing function, that is, at the level of the pituitary gland, the production of gonadotropins is upset, which leads to an impaired follicular maturation process in the gonads and luteal insufficiency against the background of hyperestrogenism.

This causes a pathological restructuring of the endometrium in both phases of the cycle, acyclic and cyclic bleeding, as endometrial hyperplasia develops. If the menstrual cycle disorder of the type of rare and irregular menstrual or acyclic bleeding occurred after 40 years, most likely this indicates a premature depletion of the ovaries (early menopause) and requires hormone replacement therapy.

Violation of the cycle while taking hormones

Often, on the background of taking contraceptive drugs (combination contraceptives or progestin drugs for a long time, such as Depo-Provera), intermenstrual bleeding occurs during the first 3 months of using hormones (see contraindications for oral contraceptives).

This is considered normal, as the body must re-tune for hormones that come in from the outside and suppress the production of its own. If the acyclic bleedings last longer than the specified period, this is due to the wrong selection of the drug (too high or low dose of hormones) or the wrong pill.

The same situation may lead to the development of algomenorrhea. There is a high likelihood of massive uterine bleeding when using tablets for emergency contraception, which is associated with “elephant” hormone levels in such preparations (therefore gynecologists recommend using fire contraception no more than 1 time per year, see Postinor for side effects).

Amenorrhea is often caused by taking progestin drugs or progestin injections of prolonged action. As a consequence, progestins are usually prescribed to women of premenopausal age or suffering from endometriosis (when artificial menopause is needed).

In case of menstrual irregularities, treatment is selected according to the reason, which led to a cycle failure, the age of the woman / girl, clinical manifestations and the presence of comorbidities.

Treatment of a disturbed cycle of menstruation in adolescence

Violation of the cycle, which is complicated by juvenile bleeding, is subject to two-stage therapy.

  • In the first stage, hemostasis is carried out with hormonal preparations and hemostatic agents (dicine, vicasol, aminocaproic acid).
  • If a patient has long-lasting and severe bleeding and is accompanied by such symptoms as weakness, dizziness, low hemoglobin (70 g / l and less), then the girl should be scraped out. To prevent ruptures of the hymen last cut off with 0.25% novocaine. The scraping, respectively, sent for histological examination. If hemoglobin is in the range of 80 - 100 g / l, hormonal pills are prescribed (low-dose combined contraceptives: Marvelon, Mersilon, Novinet and others).
  • In parallel with surgical and hormonal hemostasis, antianemic therapy is carried out (blood transfusion, red blood cell mass, reopolyglukine, infukol, and iron supplements are shown: sorbifer-durules, tardiferone, and others).
  • Hormone treatment lasts at least three months, and therapy of anemia until hemoglobin levels rise to normal numbers (this is the second stage of treatment).
  • In uncomplicated cases of menstrual disorder in girls (when menstrual function becomes established) cyclic vitamin therapy is prescribed. In case of violation, vitamins are taken according to the scheme (to stimulate the production of own hormones in the ovaries):
    in the first phase, vitamins B1 and B6 or a complex of vitamins of group B (Pentovit), whereas in the second phase vitamins A, E ("aevit"), ascorbic acid and folic acid.

A practical example: An 11-year-old girl with juvenile bleeding was sent to the gynecological department. Diagnosis at admission: Premature sexual development. Violation of the menstrual cycle. Juvenile bleeding. Fortunately, the patient's bleeding was not abundant, but lasted more than 10 days. Hemoglobin is reduced to 110 g / l. My colleague and I, of course, did without curettage and began to stop bleeding with symptomatic hemostasis. The treatment had no effect, so it was decided to switch to hormonal hemostasis. Against the background of Novinet's reception, by the end of the first day, the discharge practically disappeared (therapy was carried out according to the following scheme: first 4 tablets during the day, then 3 tablets, then 2 tablets, and then one before the end of the package). The girl took Novinet for three more months, no bleeding was observed either during treatment or after drug withdrawal. To date, the former patient is 15 years old, the menstrual cycle has been established, there has been no recurrence of bleeding.

Treatment of an impaired cycle in women of child-bearing age

Treatment, in principle, is similar to therapy in adolescents. In the event of bleeding, regardless of its severity, such patients are subjected to diagnostic curettage for both therapeutic purposes (surgical hemostasis) and diagnostic ones.

After the histological conclusion, hormone therapy is prescribed:

  • It can be combined oral contraceptives according to the standard scheme.
  • In the case of a defective luteal (second) phase, progesterone analogs of Duphaston or Utrogestan are assigned in the second half of the cycle, either 17-OPK or Norkolut.
  • It is necessary to replenish the circulating blood volume (colloidal solutions), antianemic therapy (see iron supplements for anemia) and symptomatic hemostasis.
  • If curettage of the uterus does not produce results, the issue of ablation (burning) of the endometrium or hysterectomy is resolved.
  • It also shows the treatment of concomitant diseases that led to a cycle disorder (hypertension - limiting salt and fluids, prescribing antihypertensive drugs, liver pathology - adherence to therapeutic nutrition, taking hepatoprotectors, etc.).
  • Failures of the menstrual cycle can cause infertility, therefore, pergonal and choriogonin (stimulate the development of active follicles) and clomiphene (stimulation of ovulation) are prescribed for the possibility of pregnancy.

Menopausal bleeding

If bleeding appeared in the climacteric period, the woman must be subjected to curettage of the uterus, as such bleeding can be signs of endometrial adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia. In this case, the question of hysterectomy (see. Indications for removal of the uterus). After the results of histological examination:

progestogens are assigned: 17-OPK, duphaston, Depo-provera. Perhaps the appointment and anti-estrogen drugs, such as danazol, 17a-ethinyl testosterone, gestrinon in continuous mode.

It doesn’t matter at what age a violation of the menstrual cycle occurred, this pathology is only a consequence of any underlying disease, so it is necessary to identify and treat the underlying pathology, because only after removing the cause it is possible to restore the normal cycle. And, of course, it is necessary to remember about the normalization of the regime of the day and rest, good nutrition and minimizing stress. With obesity, it is often enough to normalize weight to restore the menstrual cycle. The same applies to exhausted women (in this case, shown high-calorie diet).

Obstetrician-gynecologist Anna Sozinova

In our country, BCG vaccination (weakened bovine-type tuberculosis bacillus) in infants is compulsory, well, if only the vaccination, it is usually normally tolerated. But, at the age of 7, revaccination is performed, and for those with a negative manta. But no one knows how the growing body of a girl with a weak immune system will react to a half-dead bovine-type tubercle bacillus, and by the way, she loves to hit the female reproductive system, unlike Mycobacterium tuberculosis (human). So, the child continues to grow and develop, no symptoms, nothing happens, but during puberty, girls often develop a positive Mantoux reaction - and not because she came across a person with tuberculosis somewhere, but because The vaccine strain can easily become more active when hormonal changes occur. And then the favorite localization of the sticks is the fallopian tubes and ovaries, they are affected by tuberculosis, asymptomatic, the girl does not feel anything. And that's it, here you have both 100% infertility, and menstrual irregularities, and the absence of menstruation, and at 20-25 when a woman wants to give birth, and she is told you have pipe infertility, where will he come from.
Parents, do not make girls BCG revaccination. Yes, I agree that infants, if there are no contraindications, this should be done, but already at the age of 7 and at the age of 14, do not make BCG revaccination for children.

Good day. I have a problem with menstruation from adolescence. Breaks were for six months. Treated with hormones. Now I am 32 all the time on hormones, there is no improvement. She gave birth to a child with great difficulties. Advise how to be. Thank.

Hello. My monthly problems were also in my teens, long-lasting daub. Saw hormonal. It has improved. Bore a child. A failure occurred after an abortion, somewhere in 32. Also saw the pill. Then in 37 years after severe stress, it was again broken.Since then, it really hasn't gotten right (now I'm 40), it takes about two weeks, a week break and it starts again.

Hello) the fact is that my menstrual cycle is constantly interrupted, but the period of flow is 5 days, but this time it lasted only 2 days with non-characteristic discharge and severe pain ... (and indeed I suffer very painfully) ... a week later I started again to hurt the stomach, as during menstruation, but there is no blood, for the third day I can not come to myself, nausea, vomiting, aching pains. I did not give birth, there is no pregnancy! Thank you in advance !!

Violation of the menstrual cycle in 40 years - treatment

Nature can not be stopped, time does not go back, do not win the battle with age, withering of the body. In the life of every woman over the years, sooner or later comes - a period of change in the medical environment called climacteric. The period of menopause does not come in an instant - its symptoms are formed and change in the period of 40-45 years. These years, a woman lives, remaining active, because 40 years is not a reason to believe that life is already over, she still beats the key at this age. It is necessary to strive for its full and healthy course, and for this to understand all the processes, transformations and reorganizations occurring in the body.

Pregnancy after 40 years

Violation of the cycle of menstruation after 40 years often leads to pregnancy, and possibly childbirth. Incorrectly believing that at this age conception is not possible, many women ignore previously used means and methods of contraception. Statistics of childbirth after 40 years suggests that the mass of women gives birth at this age. Before you make such an important decision, you need to weigh the pros and cons of the process of pregnancy, late delivery and determine for yourself the desire or the need for a baby. It is important to know that at this age babies are born healthy and complete, but there is a risk of having sick or premature babies. This is due to the age to which a woman sometimes approaches with a “bunch” of chronic diseases. Recommendations based on diagnostic data, on childbirth or termination of pregnancy, can be given by the doctor during the patient's personal visit.

At 40-45 years old, the age of young girls is over, and it is time not only mental maturation, but also physiological. A new stage of life has begun, associated with the completion of a woman’s childbearing function. These years are often called “critical,” and every woman must find the strength to cope with a new stage for herself. This will help her close and loved her people, her family. Some women can move the "menopausal" period easily and smoothly, while the health of others and, therefore, the overall condition of the body gives a crack. With severe forms of menopausal syndrome, effective hormone replacement therapy, prescribed by a gynecologist, and, unlike our compatriots, often used in Europe, will help to cope.

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Hemoglobin in women after 40 years

Causes of menstrual failure after 40 years

The female body is a mystery, which can only be solved by nature. The characteristics of changes that may occur after 40 years may be of different nature. During this period, there is an active hormonal adjustment of the body and problems with the regularity of menstrual flow can be observed. If you note the irregularity of menstruation, dizziness, hot flashes and unreasonable migraines - this may be a hint that the menopausal period is approaching and all these symptoms are nothing but the onset of menopause.

However, in some cases, interruptions in menstruation may indicate pathological processes in the female body. Therefore, in this or that case, it is worth consulting with a doctor who will prescribe the necessary tests and examinations and subsequently decide on how to correct the problem.

The main causes of menstrual irregularities in women over 40 and how to eliminate them

Why there are changes in the cycle of the menstrual period in women after forty years, the answer may be the most unexpected - this is due to the restructuring of the hormonal background and a sharp decrease in estrogen production. In such a situation, the probability of fertilization of the egg is minimized, therefore, it indicates the extinction of menstrual functions.

However, after the period of menopause begins, the female organs should function at the same level, but as practice shows, many of them give temporary failure and suspend their work for a certain period of time. There are also situations when it is possible to resume their functionality only after preliminary targeted treatment. Menstruation in this case begins to fade, however, very rarely there are situations when it can recover for a while.

It is also worth noting that at the age of 40 years and above, other health problems may arise, during which the monthly excretion is also suspended. These phenomena are not caused by hormonal changes and may be as follows:

  • Psychogenic cause. Strong stress can cause a failure of the menstrual cycle and, as a result, delayed menstruation. It should be noted that even with age, a woman does not cease to react very acutely to the environment and worry about certain things and situations. Consequently, the menstrual cycle also reacts sharply to this and responds with monthly delays.

It is also worth taking into account the general indicators of physical health. This is due to the fact that mental emotions most directly affect the overall health of a woman. Pre-menopausal age is always additional emotions and stress, and it is better to endure them at a young age than after forty years.

  • Emotions. If the monthly do not go for a long time or are absent altogether, this can be a consequence of very strong impressions or emotions. By the way, it is worth noting that this emotional overstrain can be both negative and positive.
  • Neurogenic causes. It often happens that the menstrual cycle can be lost due to a variety of psychological overstrains that can occur at work, at home or in other places. Also here are very important events in the lives of our children. Mother so acutely endures this experience that menstruation after 40 years may stop for a while.
  • Physical activity, especially unbearable for the weight category of women. Many women, after fulfilling the main function - the birth of children, cease to pay attention to the severity that they lift. However, it is worth controlling at any age, since forty years is a rather middle-aged age and severity can be reflected in a decrease in menstrual function and, as a result, in various female diseases.
  • A variety of pathologies of the genital organs in women is the cause that can occur latently at a young age and make itself felt only after forty years. Monthly begin to go with interruptions and at this age there is a significant risk of developing various pathologies that are dangerous not only for general health, but also for the life of a woman.

The most common diseases include the following:

  • ovarian cysts of multiple or single character,
  • endometriosis,
  • uterine myoma,
  • chronic adnexitis,
  • endometritis.

As for various gynecological interventions, abortion, removal of polyps or other manipulations can also cause menstruation to be absent for a month or more.

  • Chronic diseases of the body as a whole. It is worth noting that if a woman’s body has such inflammatory processes that are chronic in nature, then this can also be the reason that there is a delay in menstruation. In order to eliminate this condition as much as possible, it is necessary to visit a doctor in time, who will prescribe all necessary tests and examinations in order to exclude the presence of pathological processes as much as possible.

As for the gynecologist, once a year it is necessary to undergo an examination, and if any diseases are naive, this process should be repeated once every six months.

  • The reason for the delay may be problems with the functioning of the female endocrine system. The thyroid gland is directly connected by the gynecological system, therefore, with its reduced functionality, interruptions in the menstrual cycle can also be observed.
  • Obesity or improper diet of a woman. This factor can directly affect the interruption of menstruation. The diet should include all the necessary nutrients and the maximum exclude foods that contribute to the development of such pathologies as excess weight or accumulation of cholesterol. The ovaries, like no other organ, react sharply to a vitamin deficiency or glut of harmful acids, therefore, the menstrual cycle is also lost due to the malfunctioning of its main organ.
  • Medicines. There are some types of drugs that can slow down the menstruation process. However, in order to avoid this, it is necessary to take drugs only after consulting with your doctor. If you take medications of this type and note the time delay of your periods, then after their cancellation the cycle is usually restored.

If you note a reduction in the volume of menstrual flow, you should definitely consult with your doctor, after which it will be possible to determine the exact cause of the delay or termination of menstruation in a woman after forty years.

If you come to the age of forty, then you should take care in advance that this period is over with minimal discomfort for a woman. For this you should not succumb to stressful situations and wear very large weights. However, if the sphere of activity is connected with such nervous projects, then it is worth thinking about changing the sphere of employment in order to maximally prolong your female health and longevity.

What changes can a woman face at the age of 45?

To understand what is happening with the female body after forty years, it is necessary to clearly understand that this age is characterized by the approach of menopause. Consequently, hot flushes, menstrual interruptions and feeling unwell should first of all be regarded as a normal physiological state upon the onset of menopause.

At the age of forty-five, the interval between monthly bleeding gradually increases, and the discharge itself becomes more scarce. Just at this age, this situation becomes the norm. However, there is an alarming signal, if at this age the menstrual periods become more abundant or the bleeding begins in the middle of the cycle and lasts more than seven days, it is urgent to consult with a highly qualified specialist in order to exclude the occurrence of any pathologies as much as possible.

As for the period of 40-45 years for a woman, it is worth noting that this particular stage of life is nothing like the most real premenopausal. In this period, the activity of the ovaries begins to gradually decrease and estrogen, respectively, is not excreted in the required amount. There are delays in menstruation, the scarcity of discharge is noted, and you can also notice how menopause is gradually approaching. As a rule, during this period, chronic diseases may become exacerbated or new pathologies associated with the intensive hormonal alteration of the female body may arise.

As for the individual tolerance of such a condition, it is worth noting that each woman transfers it differently. Someone suffers from migraines and intense tides, and someone just feels minor dizziness, which very quickly pass without a trace. It all depends on the woman’s immune system, as well as on the individual characteristics of her body.

If we talk about external data given by a woman after the age of forty, then it is worth noting that hormonal adjustment is most directly reflected on the state of the skin of a woman. Due to the low production of estrogens, the regeneration processes slow down significantly and the skin can mostly become wrinkled and appear flabby. However, hormone replacement therapy in the form of special injections or tablets helps to cope with all these shortcomings. It is strictly contraindicated to take these drugs on their own, the need to use them should initially be discussed with your doctor. This is due to the fact that the wrong dosage of hormonal drugs can cause a variety of diseases, up to the occurrence of neoplastic processes.

For some women, the period is fraught with problems in the intimate sphere. Due to the fact that hormones are not stable, a symptom such as vaginal dryness may appear. This is also due to the lack of estrogen. A woman begins to experience some discomfort, which is not quite compatible with pleasant sensations during sex.

The mucous membranes practically do not perform the functions of protecting the genital sphere, therefore, a variety of urinogenital infections can occur.

The age of forty years for a woman is the beginning of such a period as pre-climax.

How is the period of menstruation after 45 years, the problems and their solutions

When a woman reaches 45 years of age, her menstrual cycle changes, and this does not always lead to an improvement in well-being. During this period, menstruation should decrease and disappear altogether. Therefore, the irregularity of the cycle should be perceived normally, it informs about the weakened work of the ovaries. If for many years menstruation lasted from five to seven days, then after 45 days, three days is the norm. When the cycle gets longer, it shouldn't be confusing. The amount of discharge can vary from abundant to scarce and this is not a problem. If the duration is more than seven days, then do not worry too.

Monthly at 45 years old undergo certain changes.

What does delay menstruation after 45 years?

  1. unlikely, but pregnancy. Yes, a woman with good reproductive health can become pregnant even at age 45. If you decide to leave the child, you need careful medical supervision,
  2. endocrine disruption (special attention should be paid to the thyroid gland),
  3. side effects of antipsychotic or hormonal drugs,
  4. fibroids, polyps, endometritis, inflammation of the appendages and / or ovaries,
  5. diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, cirrhosis, coagulability,
  6. consequences of a recent severe infectious disease.

Treatment of menstrual disorders after 45 years

Most often, the basis for the treatment of menstrual disorders in the age over 45 years is hormone replacement therapy. It helps to significantly improve the woman’s well-being and alleviate the manifestations of menopause symptoms - the hair and skin condition improves, the cycle is normalized, the emotional background stabilizes, etc.

If a woman has cancer, then hormonal chemicals are contraindicated in her. However, there are lots of homeopathic remedies that have the same effects. The only thing you need to start to apply them when the first symptoms of a violation of the cycle.

Alice Edelberg, obstetrician-gynecologist, especially for Mirmam.pro

Useful video


Failure of the menstrual cycle after 40-45 years: causes

After forty a woman may show changes in the menstrual cycle. Most often, they are provoked by physiological changes, which are considered the norm and represent the extinction of the function of the reproductive system due to age, changes in hormonal levels.

Treatment of menstrual disorders at 40 years of age is mainly aimed at reducing the activity of the manifesting symptoms of perimenopause.

For most women, the childbearing period ends at 40–45 years. This is due to age: the body activates aging processes in the reproductive system, starting with ovarian depletion, lowering their sensitivity to the effects of follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The ovaries stop producing estradiol, due to which its blood level drops.

The anterior lobe of the pituitary begins to actively produce gonadotropic hormone, the blood level of FSH, LH rises, which is why hormonal imbalance and menstrual cycle occur after 40 years.

Gonadotropins provoke a strong depletion of the ovaries, while critical days can occur, but their duration may vary. Gradually, under the influence of such violations of the menstruation cycle of 45 years, its duration increases. As a result, there is a complete cessation of menstruation.

Along with these processes in the pituitary gland triggers failures in the cyclical nature of the release of gonadotropins. Gradually, they cease to affect the ovaries, which are in the active stage of exhaustion. Перечисленные причины нарушения цикла после 40 лет провоцируют угнетение функции яичников, и это связывают с возникновением в них структурных изменений, таких как:

  • активизация процесса гибели ооцитов,
  • атрофические процессы в примордиальных фолликулах,
  • истончение гранулезы, стромы,
  • склерозирование гиалиноза.

These factors provoke a violation of the cyclical nature of menstruation after 45 years due to the lack of the possibility of ovulation, insufficiency of the luteal phase. This affects what happens to the woman's body: oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea develops.

Women of different ages depend on female sex hormones, after 40–45 years, hormonal imbalance causes depletion of the endometrium of the uterus. Also during this period, opposite processes may occur - diffuse, focal hyperplastic changes. Gradually, the size of the uterus is reduced to 4-5 centimeters.

These reasons for the failure of the menstruation cycle also affect the general condition of the woman. This is due to the fact that many tissues and organs have receptors that perceive estrogen levels, and during menopause or premenopausal it decreases significantly.

Most often, such changes are smoothed by the adaptation mechanisms of the body, blocking the processes of appearance of unpleasant symptoms. But in some women the activity of these functions is insufficient, because of which the menopausal syndrome manifests itself.

After forty years, many women begin to depress the childbearing function. The process of violation of the menstrual cycle is divided into several stages:

Perimenopause combines premenopause, menopause, 2 years after the last normal menstruation.

The main reason for the violation of the cycle of menstruation after 40 years is premenopause. It begins at the age of 40–45 years and lasts until the end of menstruation. It is characterized by the onset of a decrease in the activity of the hormonal function of the ovaries, the occurrence of the primary symptoms of menopause. This period passes unnoticed only for 5-10% of women.

At the age of 45, menstrual irregularity caused by premenopause, proceeds to the next stage - menopause, which occurs with the last normal menstruation after 45 years, lasts a year.

Menopause in a woman’s life is premature if it started at 37–40 years old, and early at 41–45. This stage may occur earlier for a couple of years when smoking, fasting, alcohol addiction.

It starts at 40–45 years old, and ends at the age of 55. This age is characterized by a decrease in ovarian function associated with aging of the reproductive system. The perimenopause phase includes premenopause, menopause, and 2 subsequent years.

This stage begins from menopause, that is, after the onset of the last normal menstruation, and also within 1 year after it. There is a postmenopausal stage up to 65–70 years, gradually flowing into the old age.

Symptoms of menopause are divided into 3 groups:

  • early - appear before the end of menstruation (during the transition to menopause),
  • medium-term - start 2-4 years after menopause,
  • late - manifest 4–5 years after menopause.

In almost 50% of women, menopause has a severe character with pronounced symptoms. A mild form of transition is observed only in completely healthy representatives of the weaker sex, and at the same time, menstrual disorders in them are observed later.

The failure of the cycle of menstruation in the fifth dozen is manifested by vasomotor and psycho-emotional symptoms.

Irregular and short-lived menstruation provoke the appearance of vasomotor symptoms, such as:

  • feeling of heart rate,
  • feeling of fever,
  • increased sweating,
  • hypertension.

With the physiological delay of menstruation, a change in psycho-emotional state and the appearance of such symptoms:

  • memory impairment
  • insomnia,
  • irritability,
  • low libido,
  • depression,
  • headaches and dizziness.

The moderate symptoms of menstrual irregularities include the appearance of dryness, itching, burning sensations in the vagina, pain during sexual contact, urinary incontinence, wrinkles on the skin, increased fragility of the nail plates, hair loss and weakening.

All the above symptoms may occur within five years after the violation of the menstruation cycle in 45 years.

These symptoms of menopause are associated with the development of diseases of vital systems and organs. Causes of failure of the menstrual cycle after 40 years lead to the emergence of such problems as:

  • cardiovascular pathologies,
  • postmenopausal osteoporosis,
  • Alzheimer's disease.

In order to avoid the development of dangerous pathologies, it is necessary to start treatment for menopausal syndrome in a timely manner. The only effective method is hormone replacement therapy. It should begin with the appearance of early signs of menopause. On average, it takes 1–3 years, but the duration can be extended to 5 years.

Violations of the menstruation cycle in 45 years

There are several special periods in a woman’s life when her menstrual flow is different from normal. One of them is menopause, which characterizes the cessation of monthly bleeding. If there are long periods after 50 years, i.e. just before the menopause, this can speak of pathology. You will learn more about this issue below.

Climax is the period in a woman’s life when her reproductive function gradually fades and the level of the sex hormone estrogen decreases until its complete absence. These changes directly affect the menstrual cycle, which changes depending on the onset of a certain phase of menopause, of which 3 is allocated. The first of them is preclimax (premenopause). The following are menopause and post-menopause, or post-menopause. All of them are characterized by certain symptoms.

Premenopause includes the time from the first signs of menopause to the end of the last menstrual bleeding. In most cases, it is about 45-50 years old. This period is characterized as:

  • monthly become irregular
  • menstruation often disappear for several months, up to six months,
  • the volume of discharge becomes smaller
  • monthly do not last as long as before.

The premenopausal period is dangerous in that it is very difficult to separate normal menstruations from pathological ones in it. The reason is the irregular cycle and the fact that prolonged periods before menopause may be common. To guard a woman due to heavy bleeding after discharge was not so voluminous or was completely absent for several months. It is difficult to determine unequivocally whether certain menstruation is difficult, because you need to take into account the individual characteristics of the body.

The cause of prolonged menstruation before menopause is often uterine bleeding, caused by:

  1. Endometrial pathology. It consists in the growth of the endometrium due to a malfunction in the process of the normal formation of the egg. With this pathology there is a risk of cancer.
  2. Myomas So called benign tumors that develop as a result of failures in the thyroid gland.
  3. Poor blood clotting. This pathology also often leads to prolonged menstrual bleeding.
  4. Polycystic. This disease affects the ovaries and is characterized by a long absence of menstruation, and then their release in a large volume.
  5. Polyps So called neoplasms, which are benign and harmless. Their negative impact is prolonged menstruation before menopause and not only.
  6. Cessation or misuse of oral contraceptives. Often this leads to hemming.

What a violation of the menstrual cycle after 45 years is considered the norm

Normal prolonged periods before menopause can be considered at the very first of its manifestations. At the beginning of bleeding are abundant and prolonged. Then they often change to scarce and become strong again. Another option - the monthly gradually flow into the less abundant and irregular. It turns out that menstruation can be protracted in the following cases:

  • at the beginning of menopause,
  • with premenopause, which is characterized by a change of periods with scanty and copious periods.

When long periods before menopause - a sign of pathology

Many women are not familiar with the cases in which menstruation is considered the norm before menopause, so they pull with an appeal to a doctor. It is necessary to do this in the case when the duration of bleeding is more than 7 days or its volume is such that one gasket lasts only an hour. In addition to these main factors, the reasons for applying to a gynecologist during prolonged periods are:

  • the presence of blood clots and tissue particles,
  • fever on the background of increased heartbeat, weakness, chills and sticky sweat,
  • bleeding after intimacy
  • severe lower abdominal pain.

What to do if the monthly go more than 7 days before menopause

The best answer to this question is to appear to the gynecologist, especially if you cannot stop the discharge yourself. It is worth refusing alcohol with cigarettes, after all they too can be the cause of long monthly. Even if the situation has changed, you should not neglect the visit to the doctor, because the temporary improvement often hides a dangerous disease. Only timely treatment will help avoid the consequences and maintain health.

How to stop bleeding during menstruation at home

Any intervention concerning the menstrual cycle, especially before menopause, is dangerous because it often leads to gynecological diseases. If you are not embarrassed by such risks to disrupt your health, then you can try several ways. The first is oral contraceptives. If a woman already uses them, then you should not stop this process, and after one blister is over, immediately proceed to another. The same should be done when taking birth control pills. They, like oral contraceptives, can stop long periods.

In addition to contraceptives, there are other drugs that are hemostatic. Among these stand out:

  1. Vikasol. It is an artificially synthesized vitamin K, on ​​which blood clotting and formation of prothrombin depend. Low levels of the latter and leads to abundant monthly.
  2. Tranexam. Modern remedy, produced in the form of tablets or injections. Also able to stop bleeding during menstruation.
  3. Duphaston. The drug is based on progesterone, belongs to the group of non-steroidal hormonal drugs. Advantage - do not affect blood clotting.

Taking these medicines is not a guarantee for improving well-being. The drugs only temporarily ease the situation, so do not rely on tablets or injections. In addition to medication, there are traditional methods to stop bleeding. These recipes use herbs and the simplest foods, such as parsley, lemon, or honey. Here's how to apply them:

  1. Honey. This sweetness just needs to be consumed in large quantities.
  2. Lemon. This fruit is also required to enter into the diet. The main thing is not to overdo it, because lemon affects the digestive system.
  3. Parsley. Greens must be chopped and boiled. After 3 hours you can drink the product, but it is better to distribute it 3 times.

Above we have already listed situations with prolonged periods when it is necessary to consult a specialist or even immediately call an ambulance. This must be done if one gasket is not enough even for an hour. When blood clots or tissue sections appear in the discharge, you should not even think about an ambulance. With the deterioration of health on the background of temperature, chills and frequent heartbeat, women also need the help of doctors.

How to treat long periods in premenopause

To exclude diseases, a woman is prescribed a series of tests, among which stands out a blood test, a coagulogram, an ultrasound scan and a cytology of a cervical smear. If all serious pathologies are excluded, then the treatment of prolonged periods is carried out with oral contraceptives, sedatives and antidepressants. Additionally, estrogens that are administered transvaginally can be prescribed. To reduce the risk of oncology, Duphaston is prescribed.

Menstrual cycle of a woman after 40

40 years old is a scary age mark for some women: there should be no climacteric (it should start no earlier than 45-50 years old), but its approach can already be noticeable due to the changing nature of menstruation. At the same age, there is a peak in the risk of uterine cancer, endometriosis and other life-threatening pathologies, at which cycle irregularities can also occur, as well as changes in the amount of blood excretion, as well as delay. How to distinguish them and when it is worth sounding the alarm, consider below.

If before the 40th anniversary of the monthly lasted 5-7 days, for the entire period you used a maximum of 10 pads for 4-5 drops, and now they are “poured”, you need to urgently visit the gynecologist. This may be a manifestation of the coming menopause, and may be a symptom of one of the following pathologies:

Pathology is manifested by menstrual irregularities with the release of large amounts of blood and mucus, which is accompanied by intense pain in the lower abdomen.

This movement of the mucous layer of the uterus to other organs (at the onset of menstruation, all these areas begin to be rejected, so there is abundant bleeding). This disease is characterized by:

  • menstrual advances with particular irregularity,
  • the volume of bleeding more than 80 ml during menstruation,
  • severe pain during bleeding.

Pathology develops in those who have undergone several abortions or curets, who use douching and / or PA during menstruation.

Cancer of the body of the uterus, which is more often found in such women:

  • who started sexually late
  • whose monthly began before 11 years
  • whose cycle was irregular and young
  • obese
  • who gave birth to only one child or did not give birth at all.
  • Uterine fibroids - a disease of a tumorous nature, which most often develops in 35-40 years. Risk factors for this pathology are abortions, long-term use of birth control pills, chronic inflammatory processes in the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • The pathology manifests itself not only with abundant bloody discharge during the menstrual period, but also with the appearance of blood on the pad and in the middle of the cycle. With a large muscle tumor, there will also be frequent urination, constipation, weakness and dizziness, which are caused by a decrease in hemoglobin.

    Abundant menstruation after 40 years may have another etiology that is not the “norm”.

    A decrease in the frequency and volume of blood secreted after 40 years can be a sign of premenopause, a period that precedes menopause itself and develops as a result of a decrease in ovarian function. For this period, characterized by other symptoms:

    • hot flashes
    • dizziness,
    • heart palpitations,
    • decreased libido
    • excessive sweating
    • weakness,
    • frequent mood swings
    • sleep disturbance.

    The skin becomes dry, wrinkles deepen on it, the hair turns gray and begins to fall out strongly, the female outlines of the figure are lost. Gradually, there is burning, itching and dryness in the external genital organs, involuntary urination, menstruation is increasingly reduced.

    If at the same time there are pains on one or both sides of the pubis, high basal temperature does not fall before menstruation, and the meager discharge lasts more than 6 days, you need to consult a doctor, because both cancer and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs can occur.

    Delay after 40 - not always pregnancy

    If menstruation stopped after the symptoms described above, such as hot flashes, mood swings, dry skin and hair, this is most likely the onset of menopause. But this symptom can also be a sign:

    1. Pregnancy. At the same time, there is a change in taste, smell, nausea, swelling of breasts and other signs of conception.
    2. Psychogenic disorders associated with stress, resistance to which, with age, only decreases.
    3. "Female" diseases: uterine fibroids. chronic inflammation of the endometrium, ovaries or appendages, conditions after removal of a polyp or curettage.
    4. Chronic pathologies of internal organs: cirrhosis of the liver, urolithiasis, blood pathologies, diabetes mellitus, any operations, infectious diseases.
    5. States after severe respiratory diseases: influenza, bronchitis, ARVI.
    6. Endocrine disorders, especially thyroid abnormalities.
    7. Inadequate nutrition, when there is not enough protein or fat intake in the woman’s body (at this age the adaptability and interchangeability of internal resources decrease).
    8. Drug medications: "Cerucal", levodopa drugs, opiates, antipsychotics, hormones for the treatment of endometriosis.

    Special attention should be paid to such symptoms:

    1. a woman is 45 years old or more, and her monthly intensity does not decrease and the interval between them does not increase,
    2. after a 4-6 month absence, menstruations of any nature and duration reappeared,
    3. In addition to changes in the menstrual cycle, signs such as bloating, heartburn, constipation, pain, discomfort, or heaviness in the suprapubic region of the abdomen appeared.

    When they occur, you need to contact a gynecologist. He will order a cervical cytology test. colposcopy. Ultrasound of the reproductive organs, the level of female sex and related hormones. The main thing at this age is to exclude cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer.

    You need to know that the frightening disturbances of the menstruation cycle, associated with the extinction of ovarian function, have now been learned to treat with hormones, hormone-like phytopreparations, and homeopathy. Such drug therapy, giving the opportunity not a sharp, but a gradual decrease in hormones, sets the following goals:

    1. normalize menstrual bleeding,
    2. eliminate vegetative disturbances (sweating, flushing, rapid heartbeat),
    3. normalize emotional background
    4. prevent critical lipid metabolic disturbances,
    5. increase bone saturation with mineral salts, as a result of which their fragility will decrease,
    6. improve the condition of the skin and mucous membranes.

    And if synthetic hormonal medications have a wide list of contraindications and side effects, increasing, moreover, the risk of developing diseases of a tumor nature, then herbal remedies and homeopathy do not bear such risks. But the latter can only be applied at the very beginning of the menopausal period.

    Lena November 26, 2016, 11:28

    Good day. I am 43. No children, although they were not protected, she was married for 25 years. There was a stable cycle - 23 days. But the last cycles of 43, 23, 60 days and in the last cycle were good health - the feeling of nausea, lack of appetite; 3 months before that, on the recommendation of the physician teiamavta, I began to take iron, because instead of 30 I have 8 units. Question: Has my menopause started? Bya at the geneticist she said. that there are no slopes. and the fact that there are no periods, said why they are needed. What am I supposed to do. I live abroad. The system is bad health. Therefore, I ask for advice in order to know what to do and what to demand. Thanks a lot in advance.

    avramenko Author of the publication December 9, 2016, 20:12

    Unfortunately, I can’t say anything without test results. You need to do a pelvic ultrasound at the beginning of the cycle, donate blood for hormones. The first analysis will help determine if there is any pathology. The second analysis - did not start the climax. In another way.

    From SW. Avramenko E.S. higher category gynecologist

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