At a certain age, a woman undergoes certain changes in her body that impede her physical, social, and psychological state. The primary role in this process belongs to endocrine disorders, mainly a decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen. What is this change? At what age can they reach a woman? This is what this article is about.
The climacteric period is a normal state that every woman has to face.
In the life of all the fair sex comes a rather difficult time associated with the hormonal restructuring of the whole organism. This is a special physiological period, during which, against the background of natural age-related changes, involutional processes directly in the reproductive system itself prevail. They, as a rule, are characterized first by the cessation of fertility, and then menstrual. Such a physiological period in medicine is called "menopause." What to do?
According to experts, the reason for the development of this state lies in the change in hormonal levels, and more precisely, there is a decrease in the production of sex hormones. If we are talking about prematurely started menopause, here doctors distinguish a number of provoking factors:
- life situations that led to severe stress,
- removal of ovaries and uterus,
- various diseases of the thyroid gland,
- producing an insufficient amount of hormones by the ovaries,
- genital infections that were diagnosed during puberty.
What time does menopause in women start? Unfortunately, it is impossible to give an unequivocal answer to this question, since this period for each woman, depending on the genetic predisposition, occurs at different ages.
What are the stages of menopause?
Experts conditionally divide it into three stages. If every woman has a rough idea about this period, it will be much easier for her to transfer this time from a psychological point of view. The thing is that she will understand what is happening to her right now. This is a very important aspect, which will be discussed in more detail below.
1. Premenopause. What time does menopause begin? This stage occurs in women approximately 40-45 years. Some doctors consider premenopausal the onset of menopause. It is characterized by a sharp decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen, which manifests itself in the form of an irregular menstrual cycle and changes in the nature of secretions. As a rule, women do not complain of any physical or psychological discomfort.
Delay of menstruation, changes in the nature of the discharge may indicate both developing pregnancy and the beginning of menopausal changes. Independently and quickly determine the cause of the irregular cycle will help home diagnostic test FRAUTEST to determine menopause.
The technique of carrying out will not cause a woman difficulties and is similar to a pregnancy test. Testing determines the development of the initial period of menopause. In a small container you need to collect a portion of urine, immerse in it a strip of dough to the mark and evaluate the result within the time specified in the instructions. Testing is carried out twice with an interval of one week. The reliability of FRAUTEST for the determination of menopause is 99%, which is comparable with a laboratory test by a doctor.
2. Menopause. In the specialized literature, you can find another name for this stage - "natural climax in women." Symptoms, age of women may vary somewhat. This period is characterized by the almost complete cessation of estrogen production, which is accompanied by the complete cessation of menstruation.
3. Postmenopause. This stage occurs approximately one year after the menstruation has completely stopped. Its duration, according to experts, depends solely on how quickly the body and the endocrine system can adapt to their new state. Postmenopause is insidious because it can significantly worsen the health of the woman and provoke the development of many diseases (osteoporosis, thyroid abnormalities, etc.).
When does the menopause begin?
How does the menopause begin? First of all, it should be noted that this condition occurs earlier in some women, and later in others, but in most cases at the age of about 45 years. Some women believe that the onset of menopause and its average duration are directly related to the intensity of sex and the number of births. They explain this by the fact that childbirth literally "exhausts" the ovaries. That is why for mothers of large families, menopause occurs much earlier and is accompanied by great suffering. However, this statement is incorrect. A large number of children and a pronounced ability to conceive reflect only good ovarian performance and excellent health.
Experts (based on data obtained in the course of numerous experiments) are confident that the abuse of alcoholic beverages and smoking, as well as promiscuous sex relations, most often manifest themselves during climax in women. The age of women who entered this physiological period, most often does not exceed 45 years.
In medicine, there are also concepts of early and late menopause. In the first case, you can expect the termination of the menstrual cycle at the age of 40 years. As a rule, close relatives of such women also had an early menopause. Moreover, women from such families have a late onset of menstruation (18–20 years).
As for the late menopause (after 50 years), then it makes no sense to be afraid. If a woman has no health problems, then experts recommend simply to regularly visit a gynecologist and monitor their condition.
How does the menopause begin?
Doctors identify a number of symptoms that directly accompany this condition. It is important to note that some women show all clinical signs, while others only a few. How hard it is to experience this condition depends directly on the level of estrogen and the rate of its decline. If earlier the hormone levels were not very high, and they decreased gradually, most likely, the woman will not feel any discomfort. Otherwise, with a high level of hormones, menopause will not be easy to survive. What is the climacteric period? Symptoms:
- Hot flushes - a feeling of heat and redness of the skin in the head and neck, which are simultaneously accompanied by sweating. A similar condition can last for about five minutes.
- Insomnia. In fact, this is a very characteristic feature for menopause. Loss of sleep, in turn, provokes nervousness, exhaustion, not only on the physical, but also on the mental level.
- Depression also occurs during menopause in women. Age in this case plays a significant role. The younger the lady, the more pronounced this symptom. Tears for no reason, bad mood, a feeling of complete hopelessness are all clear signs of depression.
- Change in habitual metabolism. Some ladies suffer from a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, which leads to changes in blood sugar and even its appearance in the urine.
- Circulatory problems. These are hot flushes, numbness in the limbs, a feeling of constant pressure in the chest.
- Irregular periods.
- Decreased sex drive, vaginal dryness, fullness. The chest loses its usual elasticity. Body weight increases as the action of the thyroid gland weakens.
Above we have listed only some of the symptoms that most fully describe how the climacteric period begins. In fact, they may vary somewhat depending on the individual characteristics of the female body.
What complications can you encounter?
According to experts, about 55% of women (45-50 years) in the period of menopause in the absence of qualified treatment are faced with heart disease. At a later age (55-70 years), there is often a dysfunction of the urinary tract (ranging from urinary incontinence and ending with inflammatory processes of a chronic nature).
Many women have osteoporosis, which causes fractures of large bones. According to available data, by the age of 70, about 40% of women would suffer such injuries.
The main problem is that the woman has to seek help from completely different specialists (gynecologist, surgeon, therapist, etc.). One has only to imagine that she receives 2-3 prescribed medications from each doctor. As a result, only individual symptoms are treated, and not the primary problem called "menopause". What to do in this case? Is it possible to soften the discomfort?
What should be the treatment?
First of all, doctors strongly recommend to give up bad habits, add more sport to your life and try to rest more often. It is better to abandon the obsession to lose weight. The fact is that for many women, as the climacteric period begins, so there is excess weight. Subcutaneous fat is known to play a primary role in hormonal metabolism.
In addition, yoga, sauna and massage are the main non-drug ways to deal with discomfort. They are recommended to relieve pain and stress.
How else can you overcome menopause?
Reviews of doctors on the treatment of this physiological state are very diverse. So, some are convinced that this period must simply be experienced.
Others believe that without drugs really can not do. Most often, women are prescribed hormonal drugs. However, they are strictly contraindicated for varicose veins, tumors, diabetes, high blood pressure. All these restrictions make many women refuse to take medication.
With extreme caution should be taken antihypertensive and sedative drugs, because during the period of menopause very often transient hypertension occurs.
For menstrual disorders, progestogens are prescribed by the course.
Should I be afraid of menopause?
In fact, to treat this state as at the end of life is not worth it. Thanks to the achievements of modern medicine today it is possible to minimize the discomfort and primary symptoms that occur during this period. Moreover, many women have about 20 years between the birth of their last child and the beginning of this "new" time. This means that practically no significant changes in life, for example, in social terms, do not accompany menopause in women. Symptoms, age, lack of psychological support - many ladies face this. However, it is important to set yourself up correctly - and then all discomfort will pass unnoticed.
When menopause occurs in women
With age, the body ends the process of production of the female sex hormone - estrogen. Because of this, the functioning of the woman’s ovaries gradually stops. Egg maturation occurs less and less and disappears. Stop going monthly. Lack of menstruation is one of the main symptoms of menopause. Along with it, signs of aging appear: wrinkles, sagging skin. All these are direct and indirect signs that the female body is no longer ready for conception, bearing the child, or giving birth.
At what age does menopause begin?
Every woman's ovarian failure occurs in different years. The average age when menopause begins is 45-50 years old. However, this is not the case for all the fair sex. There is an early menopause, which begins around 40-44 years (in rare cases after 35). There are also such situations when the menopausal period begins after 60. This is characteristic of only 3% of women.
When the menopausal period comes
The whole process is conventionally divided into three main stages, each of which has its own characteristics. The first is premenopause. In this state, the body enters after about 40-45 years. From premenopause to when menopause comes, it can take a very long time. For premenopausal stage characterized by a gradual decrease in the amount of estrogen. Monthly begin to go irregularly, may be more scarce. As a rule, this period does not cause any physical or psychological discomfort.
Changes characteristic of premenopausal organism:
- the chances of conceiving a child are minimized,
- the menstrual cycle goes astray
- the gap between menstruation is getting longer,
- gradually the amount of bleeding decreases, menstruation ends.
Next comes the turn of menopause, the period when the menopause comes. Estrogen production ends and menstruation stops completely. The climatic period lasts a year from the day when the last monthly period ends. On average, it occurs in women over the age of 51, but there are a lot of factors that influence how many years menopause begin, so it happens both earlier and later. If in premenopause, the probability of getting pregnant was still, albeit small, now it is completely excluded.
The last stage of the extinction of the functioning of the ovaries - postmenopause. It begins a year after when there is a menopause. The duration of this period depends on how quickly the endocrine system and the body as a whole adapt, but, as a rule, the symptoms disappear after 3-15 years. Postmenopause is characterized by the development of osteoporosis, diseases of the thyroid gland, heart, and blood vessels. They can begin due to the lack of sex hormones in the body. In the postmenopausal period, the following changes occur with the woman’s body:
- skin becomes flabby,
- thin pubic hair,
- breast shape changes, nipples become flatter,
- a gynecological examination reveals a lack of mucus in the cervix.
In how many years can menopause begin with risk factors
You already know that there is a notion of early menopause. It is worth explaining in more detail why this happens and how many years menopause occurs, if the extinction of the reproductive function is caused by external factors. Early menopause may begin due to:
- surgery to remove the ovaries or uterus,
- a series of autoimmune diseases that produce antibodies to ovarian cells,
- dumb ovarian syndrome,
- chromosomal abnormalities
- hereditary predisposition
- premature ovarian exhaustion,
- radiation therapy
- oncological diseases
- bad habits, including in adolescence,
- lack of sex life
- uncontrolled oral contraceptives,
- gynecological diseases.
All these factors can trigger the onset of menopause in women under 45 years of age, with premenopausal premenopause. As a rule, monthly or stopped altogether, or turn into heavy bleeding. Early menopause always proceeds very abruptly, in an accelerated version. The woman has strong flushes, nervous disorders, sleep disturbances, shortness of breath, excessive sweating. The condition of her skin, hair and nails is deteriorating.
Read more about the different stages of menopause.
The climacteric period is primarily the attenuation of ovarian activity. Previously, they regularly produced hormones, but their resources are not unlimited. Each woman initially laid stock of follicles. As he comes to a close, the inherent changes are noticed. They come in 45 years.
But this age is not final and is not absolutely accurate. The beginning, called premenopause, may come a few years later, which is considered normal. And the state itself can last for years without noticeable changes.
Here we are often talking about the final completion of menstruation, that is, menopause. This period is set one year after the last critical days. If a slowdown in the performance of the ovaries began at 45, menopause at 48 years is possible. But rare bursts of hormonal activity can be observed much longer.
From time to time there is an exit of the egg, and therefore there is menstruation. This can happen every 3 or 5 months, and then you should not convince yourself that menopause has come. We have to wait for her to 55 years.
The average age of onset of menopause
Several generations ago, its first stage of completion of menstruation was found in 40-45 years. Women gave birth to a lot, had a lot of gynecological diseases, and often there were no opportunities to treat them. Living conditions dictated other rates of reproductive development, menstruation began later, and the final inability to bear children came earlier.
Now, menopause in women, whose age is approaching 45 years, is often not yet planned. В среднем его первые проявления обнаруживаются у 51-летних.These are the results of research medstatistiki.
What determines menopause
How the uneasy period proceeds, and also from what age its first manifestations are noticed, is determined by many circumstances:
- Inheritance in the female line. Features of sexual development are transmitted genetically. Therefore, if a mother at the age of 42 noticed signs of ovarian fatigue, her daughter should prepare for menopause at the same age.
- Features of personal life. It's about pregnancy and childbirth, the presence of which contributes to the fact that the cessation of menstruation will not catch up earlier. And abortions and chronic gynecological diseases, on the contrary, favor an earlier depletion of the ovaries and approximate hormonal changes in time.
- Stress. If the negative constantly accompanies, it does not contribute to reproductive health, leading to early ovarian extinction as well.
- Nutrition features. The menopausal period and the age at which it begins is dependent on the diet. Transitions from gluttony to starvation diets, permanent strict restrictions lead to an earlier cessation of menstruation than in 45 years.
Late and early menopause
Given the likely life circumstances, you should not ignore such concepts as early and late menopause.
Be sure to do this for those who, by the age of 55, have to regularly meet the “red days of the calendar”. A tumor of the mammary gland or reproductive organs may be to blame.
How to understand that the time has come
During the bustle, some almost do not follow the regularity of menstruation, especially in adulthood. But the signs of menopause in 50 years will not let him forget about him besides the rare arrival and the absence of critical days:
- Recurring sensation of heat in the head, neck, chest, profuse sweating at the end of an attack. Last bothers and besides the tides, at night.
- Headaches, bad mood, causeless anxiety, irritability.
- Heart palpitations, high blood pressure.
- Dryness in the vagina, the need for frequent trips to the toilet.
For some, all the signs are quite weak, almost not disturbed. Others have such a strong feeling that they are forced to consult a doctor.
This period will last until the last days of life, which does not mean endless suffering due to hormonal changes. Over time, other symptoms are found:
- osteoporosis due to decreased bone density,
- weakening of the muscle tissue, reduction of skin elasticity,
- vascular problems, increased cholesterol, atherosclerosis.
But to smooth them all, to postpone the offensive in time, you can use drugs that the doctor will select. They will not only improve their sense of self, but also their appearance, and will lower the risk of developing the diseases characteristic of this period.
We recommend reading an article on early menopause. You will learn about what is attributed to this phenomenon, the causes of reproductive exhaustion, the symptoms of premature termination of menstruation and prescribed treatment.
Is it possible to adjust the time of arrival of menopause
The determining factor in the characteristics that characterize the period when this condition occurs is heredity. But there are also chances to influence him. Postpone menopause for as long as possible for a particular woman, the result will be for those who:
- In the reproductive age, he happily gave birth to 1-3 children, breastfed,
- By the age of 40, he had not acquired chronic diseases of the reproductive sphere, endocrinological, cardiovascular,
- Has a regular sex life,
- Eats properly without frills and unnecessary restrictions,
- Abstracted from stress,
- Protected by combined oral contraceptives
- Refusing bad habits
- Has a reasonable physical exertion.
When the menopause comes, you should not wave your hand. This is a new segment of life, in which not only problems are possible.
The reasons why menopause may occur earlier
At the earlier - at 40-45 years of menopause - indicate transferred serious enough gynecological diseases. Also, the reason for the early cessation of reproductive function in women is the constant stress in which the woman lives. Bad habits also have their effect. Climax can begin for various reasons.
Delay the onset of menopause is unlikely to succeed. However, you can prepare for it. After all, menopause is a rather serious test for a woman’s body.
Symptoms of menopause
Often the menopause comes unexpectedly, and the woman is not ready for it. Therefore, the symptoms that it may face are not always interpreted correctly. Insomnia, a strange taste in the mouth, a change of mood, increased irritability or sensitivity - these are the first signs of menopause. Of course, the most striking evidence that this is menopause is the cessation of menstruation.
In addition, the onset of menopause may indicate:
- tingling sensation in the arms and legs,
- numbness of the limbs,
- sleep disturbance,
- muscle pain,
- feeling of lack of air,
- dry eyes, etc.
Experts attribute the occurrence of these symptoms and the deterioration of a woman’s health to a sharp decrease in the blood level of the hormone estrogen. As a result, biochemical reactions that occur in the body usually change and the production of other hormones decreases.
There are lucky lucky ones who have not experienced any of this symptom. Also among the lucky ladies include those whose symptoms are not too intense. True, such luckies are rare.
By themselves, the symptoms, as doctors say, are absolutely not dangerous. However, they can sometimes cause quite significant changes in the physical or psychological state of the ladies. How many more problems can bring the first time without menstruation, is unknown. Sometimes the consequences are such that ladies even begin to envy men.
Predict what the symptoms will be, and when they appear no one will undertake. Therefore, it is worthwhile to morally prepare for the fact that menopause can occur unexpectedly, and not arrange a tragedy out of this event. Moreover, this does not mean that life has come to an end. On the contrary, menopause symbolizes the beginning of a new stage in life - mature.
What is menopause and its phases
Climax is not a disease, but the beginning of the extinction of characteristic female signs, an indicator that the possibility of a new motherhood is becoming less and less. The restructuring of the body in a new way affects all systems and organs.
This process takes a single year and passes through 3 stages.:
- The first is called premenopause.. At about the age of 40, the level of estrogen in the blood begins to decrease. This leads to destabilization of the menstrual cycle: its frequency, duration, intensity of discharge changes.
- Menopause - the second period, it begins with the complete cessation of menstruation, it is considered to be a year as its duration. This is the hardest time for a woman when restructuring is quite intense, and she has to adapt to new sensations.
- Postmenopause. It occurs a year after the last menstrual period. The level of estrogen at its beginning is half the original, and their production is completely stopped. This phase is characterized by the restructuring of the endocrine system, so it is necessary to fear the pathologies of the thyroid gland and the associated disorders of the cardiovascular system.
How not to age with menopause, read here.
When and how occurs in women
Hard time criteria for the onset of menopause, as for any physiological process, does not exist. For some ladies, the process of restructuring is almost imperceptible, and someone suffers from its painful symptoms. In many ways, the time of menopause is due to hereditary factors. It is considered to be on average by the age of 50. But recently, “rejuvenation” of this process has been noted; therefore, it is important to know how to define it.
There is a theory that the onset of menopause is predetermined during the period of intrauterine development.. In the ovaries of an emerging girl, a certain number of eggs are laid. They are spent throughout its reproductive period. A portion, ripening monthly, leaves the ovarian follicle, and some die for physiological reasons before reaching maturity. But year by year their numbers are decreasing. And when stocks are depleted, menopause occurs.
The follicle acts as a kind of egg bank. During the reproductive period, it has time to ripen 300-500 oocytes ready for fertilization.
Causes of early and late menopause
Early menopause consider the manifestation of menopausal symptoms up to the age of forty. The causes of this phenomenon can be hereditary and acquired. The first category includes various chromosomal pathologies. Acquired factors are very different in nature.
Also read about menopause symptoms after 40 years here.
- Hormonal pathologies of the thyroid gland, metabolic processes (diabetes, obesity) and others.
- Gynecological diseases and the consequences of their treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, etc.).
- Numerous abortions.
- Unqualified hormonal contraception.
- Bad habits (smoking, alcohol, etc.).
- Oncological diseases.
- Transferred operations.
- Violations of work, rest and nutrition.
- Adverse climatic or environmental conditions.
He, like early menopause, is often genetically predisposed. But it is not always good for a woman.
Pathological causes of late menopause can be:
- Gynecological diseases (uterine fibroma, ovarian dysfunction).
- Some types of tumors characterized by high levels of estrogen in the blood, as a result of which menstruation does not stop for a long time.
- Transferred gynecological surgery with the use of chemotherapy or radiation.
- Long-term treatment with antibiotics or other drugs that affect reproduction.
Nutrition has a significant impact on the sexual sphere. It is noticed that in Japan, menopause in women comes late and passes without serious consequences. This is due to the fact that in their diet dominated by seafood.
The first harbingers of the beginning menopause appear long before its onset. As a rule, women do not notice them. This is especially true of those who suffered gynecological diseases (endometriosis) in 30-40 years, had problems with conception or pregnancy and childbirth.
The first sign of premenopausal - instability of the menstrual cycle - in the modern world is more and more often lost on the background of long-term irregular periods in women of childbearing age. Characteristic of precursors, changes in the duration of menstruation, the intensity of bleeding, misses of menstruation, and others are difficult to distinguish from the signs of dysfunctional disorders occurring in them. They are associated with stress, unfavorable ecology, frequent abortions and not always justified use of hormonal drugs.
The onset of hormonal adjustment can be manifested by periods of shortening the menstrual cycle to two to three weeks. And the alternations of monthly passes alternating with them end in bleeding. Over time, these pauses are increasing.
In the early stages of menopause, PMS is often exacerbated due to hormonal imbalance. At the same time, mood swings increase, which can lead to a depressive state.
Also read why the basal temperature changes during menopause.
A decrease in estrogen levels also affects sex. These ubiquitous hormones guide the moistening of the vaginal mucosa, the production of lubricant to reduce friction on it during intimacy. When this does not happen at the time, discomfort appears, dryness in the intimate area and a decrease in interest in intimate relationships.
How to recognize?
Summarizing the above, it can be understood that the beginning of menopause is premenopause. This process, which takes up no one year, is characterized by an increase in the pauses between menstruation, bleeding after them and scanty discharge during menstruation.
This is considered normal. But at the beginning of menopause, pathological disorders are also possible, when estrogens, on the contrary, are produced intensively. Such an anxiety syndrome is called hyperestragenia. In this case, menstruation becomes more abundant and longer, and bleeding is not uncommon. The mammary glands are enlarged, compacted, and touching them causes pain. At the medical examination revealed fibroids and seals the walls of the uterus.
Signs of menopause are divided into early and late. About the earliest of them already mentioned.
It is still characteristic:
- Dizziness, drops of blood pressure, tachycardia, weakness.
- Nausea, swelling, pain in the joints,
- Lower abdominal pain
- Hair loss, deterioration of the skin and nails,
- The appearance of unpleasant body odor,
- Insomnia, anxiety, emotional imbalance. (Hysteria, translated from ancient Greek means "womb")
- Drowsiness and depression.
The late manifestations of menopause include various pathologies and diseases due to hormonal disorders. Cardiovascular, endocrine and bone systems, genitals, metabolic processes, skin and other organs and systems are at risk.
Is it possible to suspend the beginning and how
Manifestations of early menopause are the result of ovarian dysfunction. If its causes are not hereditary abnormalities that are difficult to correct, then hormone replacement therapy in many cases comes to the rescue.. It is also effective in preventing and suspending many diseases of the reproductive system.
Rational, healthy and regular meals are very important.
You can not neglect and tried folk remedies, herbal medicine. So, postpone menopause can ginger. Hardening and exercise, regular walking, walking in the fresh air enhance immunity, and thus help strengthen the body in the fight against premature aging.
From the above conclusions suggest themselves:
- Climax - a physiological process, and it does not need to be afraid. It lasts for several years.
- The main role in it is played by hormonal alteration and reduction of estrogen production.
- The time of its occurrence and the course is always individual, but to ignore the early menopause is unacceptable.
- Recognize menopausal symptoms can be characteristic symptoms.
- To avoid early aging, you need to monitor your health, do not neglect physical exertion and do not skip preventive examinations with a doctor.
How many years can climax begin?
What time does the menopause begin, how many years can it last? This is a long transitional stage in a woman’s life, the time when the childbearing period ends, menstruation stops, hormones are completely rebuilt. Doctors classify the following stages of menopause: Immediately we say that it is impossible to determine exactly how much menopause begins in a woman, because they are all individual, and it comes to every woman in different ways.
- Preclimax (hormonal imbalance)
- Menopause (cessation of menstruation),
- Postmenopause (the completion of the restructuring of the body).
How old is menopause in women? The oppression of ovarian function, a decrease in the number of eggs begins by the age of 37-38. At this age, ovulation does not occur in every cycle, and the chances of getting pregnant are small. Menstruation is still regular, but the hormonal background begins to change, respectively, changing health, as well as the mood in women. The onset of menopause by the age of 40 is expected too early, it is rare and is considered premature. In order to find out at what age a menopause in a woman begins to manifest itself, the closest relatives should ask the mother, grandmother, aunt about how many years this period has passed and how they cope with the symptoms of menopause. Awareness in these matters can serve the good service: a woman will have time to prepare herself for the realization of the inevitability of age-related changes, and also to take the necessary measures to alleviate her condition.
Individual features and statistics
In women who have not given birth, menopause may begin earlier than in children. After surgery on the ovaries or uterus, low immunity and hereditary predisposition also affect how many years menopause begins. Overweight, metabolic disorders lead to hormonal disorders, the forecast of mild menopause is positive, if a woman can keep weight under control.
Fortunately, not all menopause is difficult, however, there are lucky women who overcome menopause without significant health complications. For many, the natural aging process of an organism can occur gradually, without sudden changes. At what age comes the menopause, it is impossible to predict. After all, everything here is individually and in many respects determined by heredity through the female line. The borderline age is 45 years, and after it the reproductive function noticeably fades away, the number of female sex hormones decreases. In the period of 45-54 years, menopause begins in most women - this is the average age of menopause, according to statistics.
Во сколько начинается климакс? Обычно гормональная перестройка женского организма завершается к 55-60 годам. At this age, women still have a lot of strength, they are active, cheerful. Children have already grown up, have created their own families, grandchildren are growing up. Some of the older generation happily devote themselves to raising their descendants, while others, on the contrary, begin to “live for themselves,” travel, engage in creativity. The lady "aged" can start a late romance, break the old relationship, start a new one.
How to help yourself survive the menopause?
The essence of menopause - hormonal changes in women, reproductive function attenuation, with the help of certain measures, a woman can affect this physiological process, mitigate its manifestations or even delay its onset. So, what are these measures, from how many years should they be applied?
First, a woman of any age should lead a healthy lifestyle, i.e. be active, move a lot, eat right, be free from bad habits. It is important to treat acute diseases in a timely manner, as well as to prevent the exacerbation of chronic illnesses. A separate article - the preservation of the reproductive health of women, starting from a young age. It is recommended to visit the gynecologist 2 times a year in order not to trigger such female health disorders as cervical erosion, ovarian dysfunction, and endometriosis. It is with them that hormonal imbalance begins. Then the hormonal background will be in order, and, therefore, well-being and appearance, too.
Secondly, the existing family and personal life of women is of great importance. For how many years they have been having sex, how many partners have been, whether there have been abortions, how many births, physiological births or operational ones. Ideally, one sex partner (husband), natural birth and, if possible, breastfeeding of several children, regular sexual relations, marital fidelity, healthy microclimate in the family. Avoiding abortions is very important - they destroy women's health, cause hormonal and psychological stress.
Thirdly, the favorable social and psychological conditions of life of women are important. If a woman is realized as a specialist, does her favorite work, knows how to avoid stress, can not only work productively, but also knows how to rest and relax, then she is not afraid of any depression.
Compliance with these recommendations will help the representative of the fair sex to suffer menopause without loss, as well as to remain feminine and cheerful. We hope that our advice and research at which age menopause in women is most pronounced will help you cope with these difficulties.
What you should know about menopause
In order to understand the age of menopause, in women at what age menstruation completely stops, what is the process, what are the symptoms of menopause, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of the phenomenon. Menopause is characterized by the extinction of reproductive function, restructuring of the body. Estrogen synthesis slows down. Against the background of an insufficient amount of the hormone, the process of growth and rejection of the endometrium is first broken and then completely - this is how menopause begins.
A woman notes such changes in her body during the menstrual cycle. It becomes difficult to predict, calculate the time of occurrence. There are changes in the nature, form, volume of discharge. Each time the menstruation lasts differently: sometimes only 4 days, in other cases 1-2 weeks, or even a month.
Several years pass between the beginning of the process and the complete cessation of menstruation. In this period of time a representative of the beautiful half of humanity will observe a number of unpleasant symptoms. Most of them are connected with the same estrogen deficiency.
The hormone is needed not only to the organs of the urogenital system, but also to the brain, vessels, and bones. Without it, calcium is harder to digest, cholesterol accumulates more quickly, and the body’s ability to maintain blood pressure is normal.
Important! Menopause and menopause should be distinguished. The first is the logical conclusion of the latter.
When to wait for change? It is impossible to say with certainty at what age menopause occurs in women and when they end (read about the duration of menopause here). In each case, the indicators are individual. Someone activates the process prematurely, proceeds extremely quickly, and some lucky women retire, not having the slightest idea about the problems in the female body, and do not even take supporting drugs. In some women, premenopause lasts only 2-3 years, in others - 8-12 years.
Even the symptoms of menopause are manifested in all differently. Some tolerate the condition easily, others do not rest climacteric syndrome. At the same time, some of the fair sex meet the “female autumn” so calmly and painlessly that they even conceive a child.
Note! Get pregnant during menopause - you can. However, not in every stage. In this case, the mother and the fetus will be at risk. Interruption is likely to entail a complete extinction of the reproductive function without a chance of recovery.
Stages and phases of menopause
The moment of complete extinction of the female reproductive system is preceded by several years. During this time, the fair sex goes through 3 stages:
- Premenopause. The phase starts counting from 1 problem menstruation. It ends with the complete cessation of secretions. In this period there is the possibility of conceiving a child, but the number of active eggs does not exceed 10 thousand.
- Menopause. Estrogens are no longer synthesized in the body. Since the last menstruation year passes.
- Postmenopause. The body gets used to living in acute shortage. Changing the work of organs dependent on estrogen. Doctors prescribe replacement drugs. To conceive a child more woman can not.
The longest is the premenopause - sometimes up to 10-12 years - and postmenopause.
When does menopause in women begins: symptoms of activation
The main manifestation is a pathological decrease in the level of estrogen, which entails a violation of the cycle. It should be borne in mind that the process of reduction itself is natural. A 30-year-old organism produces much less hormones than during puberty or even from 20 to 30 years. The second frontier is 35 years. Then the estrogen level curve rushes down sharply.
The female body is ready for this kind of trial. They are not considered a deviation, provided that the hormone indicators are within certain limits. If the level is too low and continues to fall, it can lead to menopause.
How to recognize pathology? When menopause age comes, it always affects the sexual side of life. From the ladies who are faced with the problem, complaints are received as follows:
- excitation does not lead to the development of lubrication,
- vaginal walls lose elasticity, which causes unpleasant sensations at the beginning and at the end of sexual intercourse,
- the sensations of coitus are dulled
- libido falls, interest in the opposite sex fades away.
Attention! Specialized drugs will help to stop the manifestations. In this case, you should consult with your doctor. It is necessary to determine the feasibility of taking birth control pills, given that they can become the primary cause of premature menopause, sometimes their use leads to bleeding during menopause, and the risk of unwanted pregnancy in this phase is still high.
In addition to these manifestations, at first, the following menopause symptoms occur:
- hot flashes (the earliest rate found in ¾ women)
- sleep disorders (insomnia develops on the background of hot flashes, incontinence, pathological daytime sleepiness is diagnosed as often as the first symptom on the list),
- weight gain
- violation of the excretory function (incontinence),
- manifestations of the mental plane (emotional fatigue, sensitivity).
Menopausal syndrome is characterized by other manifestations:
- increase in heart rate at rest,
- hypotension or low blood pressure (accompanied by headaches, sweating, weakness, dizziness),
- hypertension or high blood pressure (often accompanied by midges, loss of efficiency, headaches, shortness of breath, chest pain),
- panic attacks (unmotivated fear with various vegetative manifestations, most often fear death, loneliness, old age, making fateful decisions, changes, insanity),
- decrease in bone mass (leads to brittle bones, slows the recovery process after fractures or makes it impossible),
- hair loss
- atrophy of glandular tissue (breast changes shape, nipples become flat, less sensitive).
External manifestations include a drooping, tired look, a decrease in skin tone, and fading of hair on the head. The symptoms of menopause and on the personality of the woman. Some go into themselves, do not share with their troubles with relatives. Closed. Others, on the contrary, cannot control themselves. The latter category of patients often have increased aggressiveness.
What is climax and menopause, and how long does it last?
From a medical point of view, menopause is aging, or ovarian depletion and the gradual loss of fertility. And all this leads to a deficiency of female sex hormones, the cessation of menstruation, the loss of the possibility of a natural pregnancy and the long-term adaptation of the body to this state. This period lasts more than one day, and even more than one month and year.
The climacteric period runs from the appearance of the first signs of a lack of sex hormones to the end of a person’s life, so that it can last more than a dozen years. Climacteric syndrome or a complex of symptoms of a lack of sex hormones usually lasts from 5 to 7 years.
What is menopause? Many people think that this is a synonym for menopause, but in fact, if you look, this is not quite true. Menopause is one of the phases of the menopause, with this comes a complete cessation of menstruation in a woman, and this process lasts an average of one year.
- Climax is not only women, but also men.
- The lack of sex hormones affects not only the fertility function, but also practically all the organs and systems of the body, so the manifestations of menopause can be very diverse.
- Many believe that if menopause occurs, then you can forget about gynecological diseases. This is a misconception, a woman in menopause can also have inflammatory diseases, tumors and other "female diseases", and also needs regular check-ups at the gynecologist.
- A woman who became pregnant and gave birth more than once, menopause suffers better than a woman who was not fortunate enough to become a mother. This is due to the fact that pregnancy and breastfeeding allow the ovaries to rest. Postpone and smooth the symptoms of menopause can also be late childbirth.
- Some people think that taking birth control pills will help delay the onset of menopause, but in fact oral contraceptives only smooth out the symptoms of menopause, and do not postpone it for later.
The role of the menstrual cycle and sex hormones in a woman’s life
Sex hormones - this is one of the most important, which determines the continuation of the human race. But on ensuring fertility, the functions of sex hormones do not end. They affect all organs and processes in the body. The state of hormones depends on our health in general, appearance, attractiveness, sexuality, and even behavior and character. Just like our behavior, the surrounding factors and the state of the body affect our hormones. It so happened in nature that everything is always interconnected.
Types and functions of sex hormones
Testosterone is a typical male hormone, but it is also present in the body of any woman and performs some functions:
1.It is a building material. for female sex hormones.
2.Responsible for sexual desire and getting an orgasm.
3.Participates in the metabolism:
- Protein metabolism - enhances the formation of proteins, as a result - the growth of skeletal muscles in volume.
- Fat metabolism reduces the deposition of fat, is also responsible for the formation of the shape of the male type. In addition, testosterone reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood, prevents the development of atherosclerosis and other vascular pathologies associated with it.
- The exchange of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements. Many believe that it is the androgens that take over the “fortress” of the bones after the onset of menopause in women.
- Affects the work of insulin and glucose uptake.
5.Effect on hair growth throughout the body and the strengthening of the sweat and sebaceous glands (this is especially pronounced in adolescence).
6.Participation in the formation of genitals in male fetuses during pregnancy.
7.Participation in educationerythrocytes and hemoglobin, the lack of testosterone in women leads to the development of anemia.
In addition, hormones are constantly excreted in the woman’s body, which regulate the level of sex hormones and provide other processes necessary for the fertility function:
1.Releasing hormones are produced in the hypothalamus of the brain, affect the production of hormones by the pituitary gland.
2.Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (FSH and LH) - produced by the pituitary gland of the brain, regulate the work of the ovaries and the menstrual cycle.
3. Prolactin is a hormone of a nursing mother, stimulates milk production, and also participates in getting pleasure during sexual intercourse.
4.Oxytocin - A hormone that stimulates the contraction of the uterus during childbirth and the postpartum period, as well as promoting the onset of lactation. In addition, oxytocin affects sexual desire and sexual satisfaction, and may contribute to the promotion of sperm to the egg after sexual intercourse. Also, oxytocin affects the psycho-emotional state of women.
Schematic representation of the regulation of female hormone production.
Sex hormones are produced "according to the plan of the menstrual cycle", under the influence of sexual desire, arousal and sexual intercourse, as well as during pregnancy and under the influence of various environmental factors, including accepted food and drinks. The psychoemotional state of a person mutually influences the level of sex hormones. So, a greater amount of female hormones is released during the period of being in love, that's why they say that a girl in love blooms before her eyes - this is the “chemistry of love”.
The menstrual cycle is the period of maturation and preparation of the egg for fertilization and pregnancy, which lasts an average of 28 days.
Phases of the menstrual cycle:
1.The phase of maturation of the follicles.
Follicles are immature eggs, which are formed in a girl in the womb, their number is incorporated in genetics. In adolescence, sex hormones begin to be produced in the ovarian follicles, and under their action, the eggs undergo complex stages of maturation. This phase lasts from the 1st to the 14th day of the cycle.
2. Ovulation is the culmination of the entire menstrual cycle, in which the egg cell becomes completely mature and, as is the case with all adult children, leaves its parental home. That is, the egg comes out of the bursting follicle into the tube and waits for that spermatozoid to come and fertilize it.
Ovulation occurs on average on the 14th day and lasts for several hours. The ovum is ready for fertilization on average 3 days (from 1 to 5).
3.Luteal phase - comes when the egg "did not wait for the prince". In place of a bursting follicle, a corpus luteum forms - a temporary gland that secretes sex hormones, to a greater degree progesterone. The body of a woman is preparing for the maturation of the new egg. The luteal phase usually ends by the 28th day of the cycle.
4.Menstruation and the beginning of a new follicular phase - rejection of the inner layer of the uterus, it is necessary to further prepare the uterus for the meeting of the ovum in the next cycle. Lasts from 3 to 6 days in the form of uterine bleeding.
This cycle is constantly repeated, its main purpose is to continue the race. But besides preparing for pregnancy, the menstrual cycle is the release of a large number of sex hormones by the ovaries. If the menstrual cycle passes without ovulation or menstruation, this means that a hormonal failure has occurred in the body. Pregnancy in this case will not come, but the consequences of such an imbalance will necessarily affect the general health, well-being and even the appearance and attractiveness of a woman.
What hormones are a priority in one or another period of the menstrual cycle, can be considered schematically:
At what age does a woman start menopause?
In how many years expect a menopause, no one will say. This is very individual for each woman and many factors influence this process. At the beginning of the last century, it was believed that the average age of the onset of menopause was 40-45 years, and Balzac described fading women at 30-35 years old (the “balzac age”). But in the modern world it is considered that средний возраст наступления менопаузы у женщин – это 51 год, или от 45 до 55 лет. However, this does not mean that menopause cannot begin earlier or later.
Factors affecting when menopause comes?
1. Genetic predisposition - This is the main factor affecting the time of menopause. Simply put, you want to know when there is a menopause - look at your mother and grandmother.
2. The number of births. It is believed that in women who have given birth more than once while breastfeeding their baby, menopause occurs a little later, and menopausal syndrome is easier. This results from the fact that in an interesting position the menstrual cycle stops temporarily, follicles do not ripen, ovaries have a rest. Also delay the onset of menopause late childbirth, after 35-40 years. And vice versa - women who have not given birth have the risk of an early menopause.
3. Lifestyle and nutrition - bad habits, a sedentary lifestyle, and improper diet disturb the blood supply to the pelvic organs, which include the ovaries and uterus. This contributes to the disruption of their work and can accelerate the onset of menopause. Also, these factors increase the symptoms of menopausal syndrome.
Why is menopause in women? Causes of menopause
The follicles in which the immature eggs "live" are functional units of the ovary, they are laid in girls in the womb. Their number does not increase throughout life and is exhaustive. A large proportion of follicles dissolves before puberty, some "die" in childbearing age, only 10% ripenThis is 300-400 follicles. Eggs come out of them, ready for fertilization (undergo ovulation). That is, sooner or later, the follicles with ova end, the ovarian function fades away and less and less sex hormones are secreted. Then comes the cessation of the menstrual cycle, or menopause. From this moment on, the ovaries completely stop the production of estrogens and progesterone, their blood levels drastically decrease. Of course, the complete absence of sex hormones does not reach, a small amount of them still continues to be produced, but other organs and tissues — the adrenal glands, liver, muscle and adipose tissue — take on this function.
Other organs and processes in the body that they affect are affected by the lack of hormones, and all the manifestations of the menopausal syndrome and menopause symptoms are associated with this.
Physiological wilting of the ovaries is the main cause of menopause in most women. But there are pathological conditions that lead to a "unplanned" onset of menopause. For this you need to figure out what is menopause.
What is menopause? Types of menopause and their causes
1.Physiological climax - The normal state, not associated with the disease.
2.Artificial menopause or pathological menopause. The main reason for such menopause are doctors, or rather, the need to cure diseases that threaten the patient's life:
- "Surgical climax" develops after removal of the ovaries and uterus. If one ovary or uterus is removed (even with the preservation of one or both ovaries), then menopause does not occur immediately, but earlier than expected. And in case of removal of both ovaries, menopause occurs abruptly, after a few days.
- "Radiation climax" develops as a result of receiving a large dose of radiation, for example, after a course of radiation therapy.
- "Medicinal climax" may develop as a result of chemotherapy. Also for the treatment of infertility, for example, with endometriosis, with the help of drugs temporarily (for several months or a year) inhibit ovarian function. Lack of hormones leads to the resorption of foci of growth of the endometrium, then stop oppressing the ovaries and with the help of female hormones stimulate the menstrual cycle, against this background there is a chance to get pregnant and endure a healthy baby.
3.Early menopause or premature menopause - This is the onset of menopause at the age of 40 years.
Causes of early menopause:
- pathologies of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, diabetes and other endocrine diseases,
- diseases of the central nervous system, for example, a tumor in the pituitary or hypothalamus,
- chronic stress and strong psychological shock,
- inflammatory diseases and tumors of the pelvic organs,
- wrong lifestyle,
- deficient conditions, such as exhaustion with bulimia and anorexia,
- chronic infections such as tuberculosis, HIV / AIDS, syphilis and other diseases and conditions.
4.Late menopause - develops in women after the age of 55, usually this kind of menopause is associated with genetic predisposition and is transmitted through the maternal line. Like early menopause, late menopause also negatively affects the life and health of women. According to scientists, sex hormones after the age of 60 increase the risk of developing cancer of the ovaries, uterus, and mammary glands.
5.Ovarian exhaustion syndrome - a rare phenomenon, which is often inherited. Failure occurs in the womb, when follicles are laid. They are formed in smaller quantities than other girls. Follicles end early, still before the age of 40 years, and sometimes up to 30 years. In this case, knowing about this particular of your mother or grandmother, it is important to give birth in time, while there are still eggs.
How to delay menopause?
Is it possible to postpone menopause? Such a question is asked by many of the fair sex, wanting to remain young and beautiful as long as possible. And again I want to remind you that menopause is a normal physiological process that will inevitably come, as laid down in our genetics. It also contains the age when this menopause comes. Therefore, we can’t particularly affect when menopause begins.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is believed to delay the onset of menopause. But, if you look, menopause is ovarian depletion, due to the fact that they run out of follicles in which there are eggs. While the lack of sex hormones is a consequence of this condition. HRT can restore the missing hormones, alleviate the manifestations of menopause, but it is not able to stop the irreversible process of ovarian exhaustion, new follicles will not appear in them. So HRT does not postpone menopause, but corrects its symptoms.
Herbal medicines for menopause, phytoestrogens, have the same principle of action.
To postpone for some time, ovarian depletion is possible only through childbirth and breastfeeding. That is, if you want menopause to come later, get pregnant and give birth.
So, we cannot delay the physiological climacter, but we can make this process unhealthy for the health and psyche by taking sex hormones or phytoestrogens.
But, in addition to normal menopause, premature or abnormal menopause is often developed. To prevent such a state in most cases we can.
How to prevent the development of early menopause?
- Lead an active lifestyle and eat right.
- Stop smoking, alcohol and strong coffee, as well as "junk food" containing preservatives, dyes, and more. They contribute to the death of follicles in the ovaries, thereby bringing menopause.
- Family planning and prevention of unwanted pregnancies and abortions.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding should survive every woman at least once, nulliparous women go into menopause earlier.
- Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
- Regular visit to the gynecologist for the timely detection of pathology of the uterus and appendages, it will avoid chronic inflammation and removal of the uterus and / or ovaries.
- Stress is a trigger for any disease, so you need to adequately respond to stressful situations, dispense work and rest, get enough sleep, walk more in the fresh air.
- Getting enough vitamins and trace elements with food and biological supplements will also support women's health.
What is the menopause?
The term "menopause" in Greek means "stage". There is an opinion that this is one of the most difficult stages in the life of a woman, associated with the extinction of sexual function and a steady increase in the level of gonadotropins, indicating the onset of menopause.
The concept of menopause combines several periods:
Preklimax (premenopause)- several years preceding the onset of menopause. During this period, ovarian production of estrogen gradually decreases. Preclimax may occur at the age of 40-45 years, less often at 30-40 years.
- Menopause - a period of steady cessation of menstruation and intermenstrual cycles (their one-year absence). Menopause is an early menopausal period that lasts for five years after the cessation of menstruation.
- Postmenopause (late menopause) lasts up to 70-75 years.
- Old age - The period of life after 75 years.
Questions about the quality of life of a woman during menopause are quite acute and relevant. At the same time, special attention is paid to the following parameters: physical and mental well-being, social and role-based functioning, as well as a general objective perception of the state of one’s health.
Factors that affect a woman's body during menopause
- Natural aging processes, accompanied by receptor and mediator changes, nerve cell death, decreased motor activity, an increase in cognitive impairment and exacerbation of depressive processes.
- The presence of chronic somatic and neuropsychiatric diseases that are formed during life under the influence of adverse environmental factors, as well as due to genetic predisposition. Many women are diagnosed with atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as well as anxiety disorders and past episodes of depression.
- The effect of climacteric hormonal changes on the central and peripheral nervous system. The most characteristic peripheral signs of menopausal syndrome are flushes of heat and urinary disorders. The main clinical manifestations of the reorganization of the central nervous system include endocrine, metabolic, psychovegetative, cognitive and motivational.
- Psychosocial status of women. In this case, an important role is played by the financial, domestic and professional situation¸ the presence or absence of a sexual partner, the care of adult children from home, disharmony in intimate relationships, especially the perception of yourself as a woman.
Symptom # 1 - psycho-emotional menopausal syndrome
At the moment, many people who are not directly related to medicine are familiar with terms such as "menopausal neurosis", "menopausal depression", "involutional hysteria". Of course, these psycho-emotional disorders can occur during other periods of a woman’s life, but during menopause they occur much more frequently and, as a rule, are accompanied by more complex somatovegetative disorders. Women who have entered menopause often experience increased fatigue, loss of interest in themselves and others, unmotivated anxiety, anxiety, suspiciousness, excessive sensitivity, increased vulnerability, fear of impending old age, tearfulness and lability of mood.
Symptom # 2 - sleep disturbance
Sleep disturbance is one of the most characteristic manifestations of the period of menopause. About 60% of women during menopause complain of increased sleep time, poor sleep quality and frequent night waking. When choosing a treatment strategy, the causes of dyssomnia are taken into account. During menopause, they may be associated with central and peripheral nervous disorders. Disorders of the central nervous system include vascular and toxic-metabolic brain disorders and emotional disorders (depressive states, increased anxiety, fears).
During sleep, women of climacteric age often have respiratory disorders (snoring, respiratory arrest) and movement disorders (the so-called “restless legs” syndrome), as well as morning headaches, increased blood pressure and daytime sleepiness.
Disorders of the peripheral nervous system include nocturia (frequent urination at night), hot flushes of night, parasthesia in the hands (numbness, tingling, goosebumps) and other disorders arising or aggravated at night.
Symptom # 3 - vegetative and psycho-vegetative disorders
Most often, autonomic permanent or paroxysmal disorders are combined with emotional disturbances. Many women complain of discomfort in the left half of the breast, heart rate failures, increased heart rate, lack of air, jumps in blood pressure, disorders of the digestive tract, and chills or hot flushes. Sometimes it is possible the development of attacks of aggression, fear or anxiety that develops into panic attacks. There are frequent headaches and backache.
Symptom # 4 - deterioration of performance
Cognitive impairment during menopause is manifested by a deterioration in working capacity, a decrease in the rate of switching from one type of activity to another, a weakening of memory and a disorder of attention. Most often, this condition is a consequence of emotional problems, that is, is reversible.
Symptom # 5 - metabolic and endocrine disorders
In women during menopause, there is often a change in eating behavior, improvement or deterioration of appetite, weight gain, fluid retention in the body, leading to the formation of edema. Joint pathologies, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases become frequent “satellites” of postmenopause.
Symptom # 5 - psychosocial syndrome
Some women who entered the period of menopause, against the background of dissomnic, cognitive, psycho-vegetative and sexual disorders, have difficulty in communication and social adaptation, develop insularity and stress-accessibility, there is a lack of mutual understanding in the family, difficulties at work. Of course, all this causes a decline in the quality of life and can even provoke the development of serious diseases. That is why women, who are dominated by immature styles of psychological protection and ineffective coping mechanisms for stress, require medical assistance.
Symptom # 6 - sexual dysfunction
According to statistics, 50-75% of women in the period of menopause show a decrease in sexual activity, or rather, interest in sex and a value estimate of sexual attitudes decrease.
This condition is due to hormonal changes that occur in the female body during the premenopausal period: dying ovaries produce fewer estrogens, androgens and progesterone.
Insufficient production of estrogen leads to thinning of the mucous membrane of the vagina, slowing down and reducing the production of vaginal lubrication and the development of dyspareunia (pain during intercourse).
Lack of free testosterone causes a decrease in sexual desire, and insufficient production of progesterone provokes lethargy, fatigue, headaches and other negative symptoms, significantly reducing the interest in sexual contacts.
Elimination of unpleasant symptoms
The elimination of individual symptoms of menopause can normalize a woman’s physical condition and restore her quality of life. Thus, clonazepam (an anti-paroxysmal drug) is recommended to eliminate nighttime tides and to correct nighttime sleep, and dopamine receptor antagonists and dehydroxyphenylalanine are prescribed to relieve restless legs syndrome.
With high blood pressure, patients are shown to continuously take AT2 blockers and ACE inhibitors. With an increased level of glucose in the blood, drugs lowering blood sugar are prescribed, and for insomnia and neuropsychiatric disorders, hypnotics and sedatives are prescribed.
Clinical gymnastics courses, physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, massage and spa treatment have proven themselves as symptomatic therapy.
Hormone replacement therapy
According to specialists, the most adequate treatment for menopausal syndrome is hormone replacement therapy. Her appointment is advisable in the event that a woman in the period of menopause began such complications as: cardiovascular pathology, central obesity, severe osteoprosis, type II diabetes, etc. It should be emphasized that the appointment of hormone treatment with a number of contraindications is a prerogative attending physician. Preliminary, a woman is assigned a comprehensive diagnostic examination.
Contraindications for hormone replacement therapy:
Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology,
- Злокачественные опухоли женских половых органов,
- Рак молочной железы,
- Недавно перенесенный инсульт или инфаркт,
- Тяжелые печеночные и почечные патологии,
- Заболевания щитовидной железы,
- Подготовка к хирургическому вмешательству.
Combined hormone replacement therapy drugs contain small doses of progesterone and estrogen. For patients undergoing amputation of the uterus, hormone replacement monotherapy (premarin, proginova, hormoplex, estrofem, etc.) is indicated.
During the premenopausal period, when the woman has not yet completed her menstrual bleeding, Klimen, femoston, Divina, cycloprogen, divitren, klimonorm are recommended to relieve discomfort and discomfort and normalize the cycle. Women who already have no menstruation are advised to take Livial or Cliogest.
Treatment of depression during menopause
Patients are prescribed the latest generation of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to relieve psycho-vegetative syndromes. This group of drugs includes sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, etc.
The use of antidepressants is justified in the presence of pronounced emotional and affective disorders. However, they can be prescribed in the case when there are contraindications to hormone replacement therapy, as well as if the patient does not want to take hormonal drugs.
Psychotherapy for pathological menopause
If a woman develops a tendency to depressive reactions during menopause and anxiety levels increase, psychotherapeutic treatment is prescribed in combination with hormone replacement therapy and antidepressants.
The main task of psychotherapeutic correction is the normalization of self-perception and the reduction of stress levels. A hypnotic psychotherapy is shown to the patient, psycho-regulation, relaxation and autogenic training sessions are held.
Folk remedies to relieve tides
In the event of hot flashes, often one of the most agonizing symptoms of menopause, it is recommended to use medicinal herbs as an alternative means. However, this technique, like any other, has side effects, so before starting treatment, it will be wiser to consult a specialist.
To facilitate menopausal hot flashes, traditional healers recommend the use of vegetable estrogens, contained in soy products in sufficient quantities.
In this situation, the greatest effect is not biologically active food additives containing soy components, but directly soy products obtained by fermentation.
Another vegetable remedy to alleviate hot flushes is black cohosh. It is allowed to take no more than 6 months. One of the side effects is an upset stomach.
Also, black primrose oil is used to treat menopausal disorders. It is contraindicated in patients who use blood thinners and may also cause diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
What is the early menopause in women?
Early menopause is a rare occurrence, occurring in just 1-2% of women. Early menopause is a very strong stress for the female body, adversely affecting physical and mental health. In this situation, the woman loses the ability to conceive, as the secretion of female sex hormones stops, which for many years affected the various tissues and organs of the female body.
In recent years, among experts there is a perception that the state of early menopause would be more appropriate to be called premature ovarian failure.
Causes of premature menopause
- Genetic predisposition
- Viral infection,
- Autoimmune processes
- Iatrogenic factors (surgery on the uterus and ovaries, chemotherapy, radiotherapy),
- Idiopathic factors (smoking, fasting, adverse effects of the external environment).
Symptoms of early menopause in women
The development of menopause always occurs in one of two scenarios:
- Complete depletion of the follicular apparatus (ovarian depletion syndrome).
- Ovarian insensitivity to gonadotropic stimulation (resistant ovary syndrome).
In either case, a woman with well-developed secondary sexual characteristics has secondary amenorrhea and infertility. With a high level of follicle-stimulating and luteotropic hormone, a low level of estradiol is noted, characteristic symptoms of menopause appear: irritability, hot flushes, excessive sweating, loss of memory and disability, sleep disturbance. As early as 1-2 years after the onset of menopause, the development of osteopenia is observed (decrease in bone mass and bone mineral density), the level of cholesterol in the blood rises, and osteoporosis may develop. Some women complain of itching, burning and dry genitals. When taking hormonal drugs marked a significant improvement.
Classification of climacteric disorders in premature ovarian failure
Early symptoms. Menopausal signs of vasomotor symptoms include an increase or decrease in blood pressure, chills, alternating tides, headaches, increased sweating, and tachycardia. Emotional-vegetative symptoms include decreased sexual desire, excessive irritability, weakness, drowsiness, increased anxiety and anxiety, decreased memory, and a tendency to depression.
- Medium-term symptoms (signs that develop approximately 2-3 years from the onset of menopause). There are complaints of pain during sexual contact, vaginal dryness, burning and itching, frequent and painful urination, urinary incontinence. Dryness and brittleness of the nails and hair are also observed, the skin wilts rapidly, the body mass increases and the type of female figure changes, insulin resistance increases.
- Late metabolic disorders (observed after about 5-7 years). Cardiovascular pathologies (atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease) develop or get worse, the development of postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis is accelerated.
Diagnosis of premature ovarian failure
Diagnostic measures for suspected early menopause include a physical examination on a gynecological chair and a thorough examination of the history. Next, the patient is assigned a laboratory and instrumental examination methods:
- Blood test for hormones LH, FSH, TSH, prolactin and estradiol levels,
- Blood lipogram (lipid profile determination),
- Blood on tumor markers,
- Ultrasound of the internal genital organs,
- CT or MRI (with headaches),
- Densitometry of the lumbar spine (with prolonged amenorrhea).
Treatment of early menopause in women
Due to the fact that early menopause is associated with insufficient functioning of the ovaries (estrogen produced function), in this situation the most effective are hormonal agents, which include estrogens. The dosage of hormones is selected taking into account the age, and the regimen of hormone replacement therapy therapy depends on the presence or absence of menstrual bleeding.
Indications for hormone replacement therapy
- The presence of menopausal syndrome (hot flashes, insomnia, excessive sweating, irritability, frequent mood changes, etc.),
- Urogenital disorders (nocturia, dysuria, vaginal dryness),
- Complete cessation of menstrual function up to 40-45 years.
The selection of hormone replacement therapy drugs takes into account the presence and amount of surgical interventions on the reproductive organs, the desire (or unwillingness) to normalize the monthly menstrual rhythm, the reduction or absence of sexual desire, the presence of pathologies of the liver, thrombophlebitis, heart attacks in relatives at a young age, and fear of pregnancy. .
As drugs for hormone replacement therapy in the early development of menopause, agents are used which include natural estrogens or their analogues. In clinical practice, there are three main modes of hormone replacement therapy:
- Estrogen monotherapy. In women who have undergone uterine hysterectomy, estrogen treatment can be administered in a continuous mode, or courses.
- Combination therapy (estrogen and progestogen) in continuous mode.
- Combination therapy (estrogens and gestagens) in a cyclical mode.
Hormonal correction of premature ovarian failure helps to normalize blood pressure, prevents the development of osteoporosis and atherosclerotic changes, contributes to the disappearance of menopausal symptoms, and also provides skin elasticity.
Due to the fact that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has a lot of contraindications and side effects, treatment should be carried out only with the permission and under the supervision of a physician.
Contraindications to carrying out ZGT at an early climax
- Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology,
- Malignant tumors of the female genital organs,
- Mammary cancer,
- Recently suffered a stroke or heart attack,
- Severe hepatic and renal pathologies,
- Thyroid disease,
- Preparing for surgery.
A diet that helps survive menopause
Even in ancient times, Oriental healers asserted that there was a close connection between the physiological and pathological processes occurring in the body and the environment. Based on this, the unequivocal conclusion was made: to alleviate the symptoms of menopause, you need to adjust the diet, and then menopause will not be a tragedy, but a velvety season in a woman's life.
Even with an increase in body weight, you should abandon exhausting diets, as this may provoke the development of metabolic disorders and lead to depletion of energy reserves. But at the same time, we should not forget that with age, the body's need for calories gradually decreases. After fifty years, the daily calorie consumption of food should not exceed 2000-2100 calories.
In the period of menopause, it would be wiser to abandon excessive consumption of tea and coffee, "interfering" with the absorption of magnesium and calcium, which are indispensable components involved in the formation of bone tissue. You should also limit the consumption of sweets - sources of fast carbohydrates, and salty foods that contribute to enhanced removal of calcium from the body. Also, in order to avoid the development of atherosclerosis, it would be wiser to abandon the consumption of fatty meat, mayonnaise, trans fat and sausages.
Products that are useful during menopause
- Whole grain bread (source of magnesium, B vitamins and dietary fiber),
- Soy products (source of dietary fiber and phytoestrogens),
- Lean meat (source of protein and iron),
- Low-fat dairy products (source of calcium and vitamin D),
- Vegetable oil (source of polyunsaturated fatty acids),
- Oily marine fish (source of omega-3 fatty acids),
- Fresh fruits and vegetables (source of β-carotene, dietary fiber, folic and nicotinic acid, vitamins A, C, K).
Physiological aging of the female body is an irreversible process, causing an ambiguous attitude towards itself. Some women perceive it calmly and contemplatively, and live with the changes taking place in the body, while others resist reality, not wanting to change their usual ways. However, in either case, you can live a full, vibrant life, continue to work and strengthen family values.