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Pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

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Many representatives of the beautiful half of humanity face painful periods (dysmenorrhea, algomenorrhea). In most cases, severe pain during menstruation indicates the presence of any pathologies of the female genitalia. Next, we consider why painful periods arise, which pathologies and disorders may indicate, and also whether treatment for painful periods is required.

What is monthly and premenstrual syndrome

With the onset of puberty monthly rejection of some part of the uterine endometrium occurs, which, together with the egg cell and a small amount of blood, is excreted through the reproductive tract. Such a cyclical process is menstruation. During this period, women experience a significant hormonal shift, which causes the presence of some unpleasant symptoms before menstruation or directly during it.

If there is no pregnancy, the uterus rejects unnecessary tissue. This situation is accompanied by cervical dilatation and spasms; therefore, moderate pain during menstruation is a normal indicator.

Normal symptoms before menstruation in the middle of a cycle (pain in PMS) or during it include:

  • pulling pains before menstruation in the lower abdomen of low or medium intensity. Sometimes only one side hurts before menstruation, which means that ovulation occurred in this particular ovary,
  • discomfort in the lumbar region,
  • increased appetite
  • breast sensitivity and pain before menstruation in the chest,
  • minor mood changes,
  • increase in libido in the middle of the cycle and before the onset of menstruation.

The above symptoms are related and directly controlled by the production of the hormone - progesterone. Sometimes painful periods occur after a delay. This is not a deviation from the norm if there is a single case.

Types of dysmenorrhea. Causes of pain

Very painful periods are of the primary type and secondary. Primary is not associated with any serious diseases or pathologies. This type of dysmenorrhea occurs in girls with an unstable nervous system (as there is a slight hormonal failure), asthenic type of build up (very thin), in girls in the first year of menstruation or when the uterus is anatomically incorrect.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is usually associated with inflammatory or other diseases of the female genital sphere and their consequences. So, provoke strong menstrual pain can:

  1. Inflammation of the appendages (oophoritis, adnexitis), which contributes to the occurrence of adhesive processes. In the presence of adhesions, even after menstruation, lower abdomen hurts and pulls the lower back.
  2. Endometriosis of the uterus and ovaries. The cells of the uterine endometrium are intensively divided and spread to nearby organs.
  3. Various neoplasms (cysts, polyps).
  4. Inflammatory processes of nearby organs (eg, bladder).
  5. Hormonal disorders. For example, menstruation after Duphaston (hormonal medicine) sometimes comes with a slight delay and can cause pain in the lower abdomen of a whining character.
  6. Varicose veins of the pelvis.
  7. Hormonal disorders.
  8. Surgical interventions (including abortion). For example, periods after hysteroscopy often come with a delay of one month. Menstruation does not proceed as usual - the intensity of the discharge may change and severe pain may occur.
  9. Intrauterine device. When improperly installed or removed, it causes acute pain in both menstruation and mid-cycle.

Painful symptoms during menstruation

On the first day of menstruation, there may be some discomfort. So, a woman has the following symptoms:

  • strong aching, nagging pains in the lower abdomen, which are localized on one side (the right side or the left side hurts) and given to the tailbone, the leg or the uterus. In severe cases, there may be a sharp spasm or "lumbago" in the abdominal cavity, associated with the contraction of the uterus and the rejection of an unfertilized egg,
  • lower back pain
  • dizziness, migraine,
  • severe nausea, sometimes vomiting and diarrhea,
  • a feeling of pressure and swelling of the mammary glands, sore nipples,
  • autonomic nervous system disorder, manifested by chills, sweating, changes in heart rhythm,
  • upset stool, diarrhea or, conversely, constipation,
  • a faint of several seconds is a terrible symptom that requires an urgent call to the doctor.

The above symptoms can make a woman completely disabled, so bed rest is required, at least until severe pain during menstruation subsides.

The nervous system also suffers during this period. Strong discomfort makes a woman overly irritable, anxiety, insomnia, weakness can appear. Chronic stress often increases the duration and frequency of symptoms. That is why women often have not only pain after menstruation, but also in the middle of the cycle.

Often doctors recommend patients with the above symptoms to keep a diary and a cycle calendar, where they should record the dates of the beginning and end of their periods, whether they are painful, as well as other ailments observed during this period.

In some sources you can find information that if you have pain during menstruation, you need to move more or do physical exercises. However, in reality, this should not be done during menstruation, since unnecessary movements with severe pain will only aggravate the situation.

Monthly during pregnancy

If the expectant mother is healthy, then there should be no monthly pregnancy. Bleeding in the first trimester is most dangerous, up to 12 weeks. It is during this period of childbearing that the risk of miscarriage is high.

If a woman has painful periods during pregnancy in the early stages, and she does not even know about her interesting position, this aggravates the situation. A future mother may drink alcohol, smoke based on uterine bleeding and lower abdominal pain, suggesting that menstruation has begun. That is why there are situations when a woman finds out about pregnancy three months after conception.

If a pregnant woman has lower abdominal pain, discharge brown or reddish color should immediately visit a gynecologist to prevent the sad consequences. In order to save the child, eliminate the cause of pain and the very painful symptoms most often, women are prescribed treatment in the hospital.

Thus, menstruation during pregnancy in most cases speak of a pathological process that requires urgent diagnosis.

Diagnostics

Very severe pain during menstruation, which lasts more than two or three days and does not pass after taking analgesics, requires medical intervention. To find the right treatment, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis and find out the cause of the pathological symptoms.

Inspection should be carried out at the beginning of the cycle, preferably for 5-7 days. In the extreme case - in the middle of the cycle, before the onset of ovulation. During this period, hormones are restored, the pain most often disappears and the results of studies will be more accurate.

Diagnostic measures are carried out by the gynecologist in several stages.

To begin with, a patient history is made. The doctor finds out whether the patient is having a sexual life, what methods of contraception are used, whether there have been pregnancies, abortions, surgical interventions, whether there are chronic diseases.

Then she starts the examination in the gynecological chair. An experienced gynecologist by palpation can determine the presence of possible inflammation of the ovaries, appendages or uterus. The site of inflammation is usually painful and enlarged.

The above methods are often insufficient for correct diagnosis, therefore, additional laboratory and hardware studies are conducted to avoid medical errors. A smear is taken to identify possible infections, blood from a finger (vein). In some cases, a blood test for hormones.

Then the woman needs to do an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs to determine the presence of a cyst and other structures. Sometimes the doctor prescribes laparoscopy - a study that allows you to determine the presence of adhesions and in more detail than an ultrasound, to check the pelvic organs.

Painful menstruation can also be associated with vascular pathologies. In this case, doppler blood vessels.

According to the results of diagnosis, in the absence of gynecological pathologies, it is necessary to be examined by a neurologist and a psychotherapist, since failures in the nervous system can directly affect the changes in the cycle and aggravate the course of its unpleasant symptoms.

If the gynecological disease is revealed, the doctor makes a diagnosis of algodysmenorrhea and prescribes treatment.

General information about painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Causes of pain during menstruation

Diagnosis of pain during menstruation

Treatment of pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

General information about painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) is a common problem. At least once in their lives, almost every woman experiences them.

Dysmenorrhea is usually felt as painful muscle spasms in the lower abdomen. Against the background of dull constant pain, intense cramping pains appear from time to time.

As a rule, discomfort occurs at the time of the onset of menstrual bleeding and lasts about 48-72 hours. Read more about the symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

Pain during menstruation: causes

In most cases, pain during menstruation is due to the fact that the muscular wall of the uterus, contracting, constricts the blood vessels that feed it with blood, which causes a short-term lack of oxygen and pain.

In addition, pain during menstruation may be associated with a background disease, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. This is called secondary dysmenorrhea. Read more about why pain occurs during menstruation.

"Female" pain is not uncommon!

Pain during menstruation is not uncommon! According to studies, up to 90% of women experience discomfort during menstruation. The intensity of pain, all women define differently, so it is very difficult to accurately characterize it. However, according to one of the surveys, in which more than 400 women took part, 20% of them defined the intensity of the pain as moderate, and 2% - as expressed. In another study, up to 14% of women reported that they were forced to skip work because of pain during menstruation.

It is known that with age, pain during menstruation usually diminishes if dysmenorrhea is not associated with a background disease. The same thing happens after the baby is born.

How to relieve pain during menstruation

In most cases, “female” pain can be managed at home. In case of menstrual pain, usual painkillers, which are commercially available in pharmacies, as well as warming procedures and light exercises, help well. Read more about how to ease the pain during menstruation.

If your period significantly worsens your health, consult a gynecologist to find out the true cause of "female" pain. With the help of our service you can find a good gynecologist in your city.

Read more about the diagnosis of those diseases that can cause dysmenorrhea.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Causes of pain during menstruation

Diagnosis of pain during menstruation

Treatment of pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

General information about painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) is a common problem. At least once in their lives, almost every woman experiences them.

Dysmenorrhea is usually felt as painful muscle spasms in the lower abdomen. Against the background of dull constant pain, intense cramping pains appear from time to time.

As a rule, discomfort occurs at the time of the onset of menstrual bleeding and lasts about 48-72 hours. Read more about the symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

Pain during menstruation: causes

In most cases, pain during menstruation is due to the fact that the muscular wall of the uterus, contracting, constricts the blood vessels that feed it with blood, which causes a short-term lack of oxygen and pain.

In addition, pain during menstruation may be associated with a background disease, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. This is called secondary dysmenorrhea. Read more about why pain occurs during menstruation.

"Female" pain is not uncommon!

Pain during menstruation is not uncommon! According to studies, up to 90% of women experience discomfort during menstruation. The intensity of pain, all women define differently, so it is very difficult to accurately characterize it. However, according to one of the surveys, in which more than 400 women took part, 20% of them defined the intensity of the pain as moderate, and 2% - as expressed. In another study, up to 14% of women reported that they were forced to skip work because of pain during menstruation.

It is known that with age, pain during menstruation usually diminishes if dysmenorrhea is not associated with a background disease. The same thing happens after the baby is born.

How to relieve pain during menstruation

In most cases, “female” pain can be managed at home. In case of menstrual pain, usual painkillers, which are commercially available in pharmacies, as well as warming procedures and light exercises, help well. Read more about how to ease the pain during menstruation.

If your period significantly worsens your health, consult a gynecologist to find out the true cause of "female" pain. With the help of our service you can find a good gynecologist in your city.

Read more about the diagnosis of those diseases that can cause dysmenorrhea.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea usually appears as a sensation of painful cramps in the lower abdomen. Spasms develop, usually, against the background of constant dull pain.

Sometimes the pain during menstruation can give (spread) in the lower back (lower back) or thigh. You may notice that every month the sensations change somewhat: sometimes menstruation passes completely without pain or with little discomfort, while other periods can be extremely painful.

Additional signs of dysmenorrhea are:

  • headaches,
  • nausea and malaise,
  • fatigue,
  • weakness,
  • dizziness,
  • diarrhea (diarrhea).

How long does “female” pain last?

Menstrual pain usually begins in the early days of bleeding, however, some women experience discomfort several days before it begins.

The average duration of ailments is 48-72 hours, but in more serious cases, the painful period may last longer. As a rule, more intense monthly bleeding is accompanied by more severe pain.

The severity of dysmenorrhea usually decreases with age, as well as after pregnancy and childbirth.

Causes of pain during menstruation

Diagnosis of pain during menstruation

Treatment of pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

General information about painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) is a common problem. At least once in their lives, almost every woman experiences them.

Dysmenorrhea is usually felt as painful muscle spasms in the lower abdomen. Against the background of dull constant pain, intense cramping pains appear from time to time.

As a rule, discomfort occurs at the time of the onset of menstrual bleeding and lasts about 48-72 hours. Read more about the symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

Pain during menstruation: causes

In most cases, pain during menstruation is due to the fact that the muscular wall of the uterus, contracting, constricts the blood vessels that feed it with blood, which causes a short-term lack of oxygen and pain.

In addition, pain during menstruation may be associated with a background disease, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. This is called secondary dysmenorrhea. Read more about why pain occurs during menstruation.

"Female" pain is not uncommon!

Pain during menstruation is not uncommon! According to studies, up to 90% of women experience discomfort during menstruation. The intensity of pain, all women define differently, so it is very difficult to accurately characterize it. However, according to one of the surveys, in which more than 400 women took part, 20% of them defined the intensity of the pain as moderate, and 2% - as expressed. In another study, up to 14% of women reported that they were forced to skip work because of pain during menstruation.

It is known that with age, pain during menstruation usually diminishes if dysmenorrhea is not associated with a background disease. The same thing happens after the baby is born.

How to relieve pain during menstruation

In most cases, “female” pain can be managed at home. При менструальной боли хорошо помогают обычные обезболивающие средства, которые есть в свободной продаже в аптеках, а также согревающие процедуры и легкие упражнения. Прочитайте подробнее о том, как облегчить боль во время менструации.

If your period significantly worsens your health, consult a gynecologist to find out the true cause of "female" pain. With the help of our service you can find a good gynecologist in your city.

Read more about the diagnosis of those diseases that can cause dysmenorrhea.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea usually appears as a sensation of painful cramps in the lower abdomen. Spasms develop, usually, against the background of constant dull pain.

Sometimes the pain during menstruation can give (spread) in the lower back (lower back) or thigh. You may notice that every month the sensations change somewhat: sometimes menstruation passes completely without pain or with little discomfort, while other periods can be extremely painful.

Additional signs of dysmenorrhea are:

  • headaches,
  • nausea and malaise,
  • fatigue,
  • weakness,
  • dizziness,
  • diarrhea (diarrhea).

How long does “female” pain last?

Menstrual pain usually begins in the early days of bleeding, however, some women experience discomfort several days before it begins.

The average duration of ailments is 48-72 hours, but in more serious cases, the painful period may last longer. As a rule, more intense monthly bleeding is accompanied by more severe pain.

The severity of dysmenorrhea usually decreases with age, as well as after pregnancy and childbirth.

Causes of pain during menstruation

A slight pain in the first days of menstruation can be normal, it can be managed on its own.

The cause of menstrual pain is a contraction of the uterus. Not strong, soft uterine contractions occur all the time, but usually women do not feel them. During menstruation, the uterus begins to contract more intensively in order to speed up the rejection of the endometrium (the inner layer of the mucous membrane). This is an essential part of the normal menstrual cycle.

During contraction, the muscles of the uterus pinch the blood vessels that supply blood to it. Therefore, for a short time, the flow of blood and, consequently, oxygen to the tissues of the uterus is stopped, which leads to the release of chemicals - triggers pain in the body. Triggers of pain, in turn, increase the production of prostaglandins - hormones that increase the contractility of the uterus, which increases the severity of pain.

It is not yet known why some women suffer during menstruation more than others. Some of them probably accumulate more prostaglandin than others, which causes stronger uterine contractions.

Menstrual pain associated with the disease - dysmenorrhea

In some cases, pain during menstruation may be associated with certain background diseases, such as:

  • Endometriosis - when endometrial cells (uterine lining) begin to expand outside the uterus, in other parts of the body, such as the fallopian tubes or ovaries. During menstruation, these cells are rejected and fall away, there is intense pain. One type of endometriosis is adenomyosis - when endometrial cells proliferate in the muscle layer of the uterus.
  • Myoma is a benign tumor of the uterus, which can make menstruation very painful and profuse.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvis - problems associated with bacterial infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, when these organs become very inflamed and swollen. For example, with adnexitis (salpingoophoritis).
  • The intrauterine device (IUD) is a contraceptive made of plastic with the addition of copper, which is inserted into the uterine cavity. In the first months of use may cause pronounced "female" pain.

Other related symptoms that indicate some kind of menstrual problems or background diseases are:

  • irregular periods,
  • bleeding between periods (uterine bleeding),
  • thick or fetid vaginal discharge,
  • pain during sex.

Dysmenorrhea associated with diseases is characteristic of older women, usually 30-45 years. A signal of violation of the menstrual cycle can be a change in the usual nature of pain during menstruation. For example, if they become more intense or longer. If you notice the above changes, consult your gynecologist to discuss these symptoms.

Additional examination

To clarify the causes of menstrual pain, the gynecologist may prescribe you the following tests and examinations:

  • blood and urine test
  • ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs (pelvic ultrasound) - using the energy of high-frequency ultrasound waves on the screen creates an image of the internal organs of the body, this is a painless procedure that will allow a specialist to identify pathology in your reproductive system,
  • laparoscopy - a small incision is made under the general anesthesia of the abdominal wall, through which a flexible optical instrument (laparoscope) is inserted inside, it will allow you to examine the internal organs with your eyes and take pieces of tissue for analysis (biopsy),
  • hysteroscopy - through the vagina and the cervix gently introduce a flexible optical device - a hysteroscope to inspect the uterus from the inside and eliminate any changes.

Treatment of pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

General information about painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) is a common problem. At least once in their lives, almost every woman experiences them.

Dysmenorrhea is usually felt as painful muscle spasms in the lower abdomen. Against the background of dull constant pain, intense cramping pains appear from time to time.

As a rule, discomfort occurs at the time of the onset of menstrual bleeding and lasts about 48-72 hours. Read more about the symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

Pain during menstruation: causes

In most cases, pain during menstruation is due to the fact that the muscular wall of the uterus, contracting, constricts the blood vessels that feed it with blood, which causes a short-term lack of oxygen and pain.

In addition, pain during menstruation may be associated with a background disease, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. This is called secondary dysmenorrhea. Read more about why pain occurs during menstruation.

"Female" pain is not uncommon!

Pain during menstruation is not uncommon! According to studies, up to 90% of women experience discomfort during menstruation. The intensity of pain, all women define differently, so it is very difficult to accurately characterize it. However, according to one of the surveys, in which more than 400 women took part, 20% of them defined the intensity of the pain as moderate, and 2% - as expressed. In another study, up to 14% of women reported that they were forced to skip work because of pain during menstruation.

It is known that with age, pain during menstruation usually diminishes if dysmenorrhea is not associated with a background disease. The same thing happens after the baby is born.

How to relieve pain during menstruation

In most cases, “female” pain can be managed at home. In case of menstrual pain, usual painkillers, which are commercially available in pharmacies, as well as warming procedures and light exercises, help well. Read more about how to ease the pain during menstruation.

If your period significantly worsens your health, consult a gynecologist to find out the true cause of "female" pain. With the help of our service you can find a good gynecologist in your city.

Read more about the diagnosis of those diseases that can cause dysmenorrhea.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea usually appears as a sensation of painful cramps in the lower abdomen. Spasms develop, usually, against the background of constant dull pain.

Sometimes the pain during menstruation can give (spread) in the lower back (lower back) or thigh. You may notice that every month the sensations change somewhat: sometimes menstruation passes completely without pain or with little discomfort, while other periods can be extremely painful.

Additional signs of dysmenorrhea are:

  • headaches,
  • nausea and malaise,
  • fatigue,
  • weakness,
  • dizziness,
  • diarrhea (diarrhea).

How long does “female” pain last?

Menstrual pain usually begins in the early days of bleeding, however, some women experience discomfort several days before it begins.

The average duration of ailments is 48-72 hours, but in more serious cases, the painful period may last longer. As a rule, more intense monthly bleeding is accompanied by more severe pain.

The severity of dysmenorrhea usually decreases with age, as well as after pregnancy and childbirth.

Causes of pain during menstruation

A slight pain in the first days of menstruation can be normal, it can be managed on its own.

The cause of menstrual pain is a contraction of the uterus. Not strong, soft uterine contractions occur all the time, but usually women do not feel them. During menstruation, the uterus begins to contract more intensively in order to speed up the rejection of the endometrium (the inner layer of the mucous membrane). This is an essential part of the normal menstrual cycle.

During contraction, the muscles of the uterus pinch the blood vessels that supply blood to it. Therefore, for a short time, the flow of blood and, consequently, oxygen to the tissues of the uterus is stopped, which leads to the release of chemicals - triggers pain in the body. Triggers of pain, in turn, increase the production of prostaglandins - hormones that increase the contractility of the uterus, which increases the severity of pain.

It is not yet known why some women suffer during menstruation more than others. Some of them probably accumulate more prostaglandin than others, which causes stronger uterine contractions.

Menstrual pain associated with the disease - dysmenorrhea

In some cases, pain during menstruation may be associated with certain background diseases, such as:

  • Endometriosis - when endometrial cells (uterine lining) begin to expand outside the uterus, in other parts of the body, such as the fallopian tubes or ovaries. During menstruation, these cells are rejected and fall away, there is intense pain. One type of endometriosis is adenomyosis - when endometrial cells proliferate in the muscle layer of the uterus.
  • Myoma is a benign tumor of the uterus, which can make menstruation very painful and profuse.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvis - problems associated with bacterial infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, when these organs become very inflamed and swollen. For example, with adnexitis (salpingoophoritis).
  • The intrauterine device (IUD) is a contraceptive made of plastic with the addition of copper, which is inserted into the uterine cavity. In the first months of use may cause pronounced "female" pain.

Other related symptoms that indicate some kind of menstrual problems or background diseases are:

  • irregular periods,
  • bleeding between periods (uterine bleeding),
  • thick or fetid vaginal discharge,
  • pain during sex.

Dysmenorrhea associated with diseases is characteristic of older women, usually 30-45 years. A signal of violation of the menstrual cycle can be a change in the usual nature of pain during menstruation. For example, if they become more intense or longer. If you notice the above changes, consult your gynecologist to discuss these symptoms.

Diagnosis of pain during menstruation

In most cases, the intensity of pain during menstruation is such that women cope with it independently, at home. However, if you experience very severe pain, consult a gynecologist.

In addition, you should visit the doctor in those cases if the pain during menstruation is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • fever (fever),
  • sudden and severe abdominal pain,
  • a large number of blood clots in the menstrual flow (heavy monthly),
  • thick and smelly vaginal discharge.

First of all, the doctor will ask about how the pain appeared, about related complaints, as well as about the peculiarities of the menstrual cycle and sex life.

Try not to be embarrassed and to answer the doctor’s questions in detail. This information will help him determine the causes of menstrual pain and prescribe a suitable course of treatment.

Examination by a gynecologist

During the examination, the gynecologist will conduct a vaginal examination. To do this, he will put on gloves, lubricate them with lubricant and put fingers into the vagina to feel the uterus and ovaries.

Additional examination

To clarify the causes of menstrual pain, the gynecologist may prescribe you the following tests and examinations:

  • blood and urine test
  • ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs (pelvic ultrasound) - using the energy of high-frequency ultrasound waves on the screen creates an image of the internal organs of the body, this is a painless procedure that will allow a specialist to identify pathology in your reproductive system,
  • laparoscopy - a small incision is made under the general anesthesia of the abdominal wall, through which a flexible optical instrument (laparoscope) is inserted inside, it will allow you to examine the internal organs with your eyes and take pieces of tissue for analysis (biopsy),
  • hysteroscopy - through the vagina and the cervix gently introduce a flexible optical device - a hysteroscope to inspect the uterus from the inside and eliminate any changes.

Treatment of pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

Usually, pains during menstruation are treated at home, by taking over-the-counter medicines. In addition, you can try several useful ways to ease pain without medication.

Painkillers

In most cases, the doctor will recommend that you take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from "female" pain. They are usually sold in a pharmacy without a prescription, for example, ibuprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, etc.

NSAIDs should not be taken by people with asthma, stomach, kidney and liver diseases. Pregnant and lactating women should also avoid them. Children under 16 should not be given aspirin. For any controversial issues, consult your doctor.

In addition to NSAIDs, paracetamol can be used. This drug has fewer side effects, but is usually weaker in terms of analgesic activity.

Birth control pills

If you have pain during menstruation and need contraception, your doctor may recommend oral contraceptives (birth control pills). These tools facilitate the period of menstruation, as they make the mucous membrane of the uterus more thin, thereby accelerating its rejection. The uterus contracts less, which relieves pain.

In addition, oral contraceptives reduce the release of prostaglandin, which also relieves pain.

If you cannot take pills for some reason, you can replace them with contraceptive implants or a plaster.

How to relieve pain during menstruation without medication

There are some helpful tips that you can use to alleviate the manifestations of dysmenorrhea on your own. Even if they do not help to get rid of the pain completely, they will surely reduce its intensity:

  • give up smoking, if you smoke - this habit increases the risk of painful periods,
  • do exercises - even if physical activities seem unthinkable to you during menstrual pain, maintaining activity will help reduce them: try to swim a little, ride a bike or just walk in the fresh air,
  • warming - you can put a heating pad or a bottle of warm water on your stomach to relieve pain, make sure you do not put boiling water in the bottle by mistake so as not to burn your skin,
  • a warm bath or shower helps relieve pain and relax,
  • massage - light massage with circular movements around the lower abdomen relieves pain,
  • relaxation techniques - yoga, pilates and other relaxation techniques can distract you from pain and discomfort,
  • transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is an effect on the skin of the lower abdomen with a weak current that stimulates the pelvic nerves and causes an anesthetic effect, this procedure can be prescribed to you by a doctor in the physiotherapy department, in addition, you can buy home appliances for electrostimulation and use them yourself, sticking on the skin electrodes.

Menstrual pain associated with diseases

To alleviate the "female" pain associated with some disease, in addition to taking analgesics, will require its treatment. For example, if we are talking about inflammation of the appendages (adnexitis), it is likely that antibiotics will be required, and if fibroids are detected, its surgical removal. Read more about:

  • how to treat inflammation of the appendages,
  • how to get rid of fibroids.

What is dysmenorrhea: is it normal pain during menstruation?

Menstruation is not without reason called the critical days, because at this time the fair sex experience a whole range of unpleasant feelings. One of the most common associations associated with menstruation is pain.

For some reason, it is believed that painful menstruation is the norm, which is actually a delusion.Any pain, including menstrual pain, requires compulsory diagnosis and treatment, which will greatly facilitate the life of a woman, return her ability to work and self-confidence.

In medicine, pain during menstruation is considered a disease and has an independent diagnosis. A patient with this problem is diagnosed with dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea). Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological disorders.

Dysmenorrhea has various causes, most often it is inflammation of the reproductive organs and hormonal diseases, which means that, after being examined and treated, you can forget about the problem forever.

How should normal monthly flow

Menstrual pain can be a natural malaise or indicate the presence of a serious pathology.

The normal state of the woman during menstruation is characterized by mild pain or slight discomfort. Light, pulling, short-term pain speaks of uterine contractions, eliminating the "outdated" inner mucous membrane - the endometrium. A new endometrium is formed every month - during pregnancy it will serve as a bed for a fertilized egg.

If a woman regularly suffers from intolerable, severe pain, accompanied by dizziness, nausea, fainting, and other symptoms that impair performance, then dysmenorrhea occurs (algomenorrhea, algomenorrhea). This condition indicates a variety of disorders in the hormonal, vascular, nervous, or other system of the woman’s body.

Types of dysmenorrhea

This disease is primary when there is no extraneous physical cause of the pain, and secondary, caused by any concomitant disease.

  • Primary (functional) dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea often affects girls and young women under the age of 25 years, and with the onset of sexual activity and the birth of their first child, this pathology disappears in half of them. It is believed that this is due to the normalization of hormonal levels. The most severe disease occurs in girls with a late onset of menarche (first menstruation) and smokers. Primary dysmenorrhea can be hereditary.
  • Secondary (organic) algomenorrhea - The result of gynecological and internal pathologies. It occurs regardless of age, but more often it is characteristic for patients who have given birth from 30 years.

Primary dysmenorrhea can be of two types:

  • essential - arises due to the low threshold of the pain threshold,
  • psychogenic - due to the fear of waiting for menstruation.

Based on the intensity of pain, the pathology is:

  • compensated - the symptoms and their intensity do not change from year to year,
  • decompensated - the pain of menstruation and the severity of symptoms increases with time.

Dysmenorrhea is classified by severity:

  • Light (1 degree) - moderate, short-term morbidity of menstruation, not leading to disability,
  • Medium (2 degree) - a slight decrease in the ability to work, pain in the lower abdomen is complemented by a number of symptoms (weakness, nausea, chills, frequent urination, psycho-emotional instability),
  • Heavy (3 degree) - complete loss of working capacity, intense unbearable pain in the lower abdomen and lower back is complemented by symptoms of moderate degree and significant neurovegetative and metabolic and endocrine disorders (loss of consciousness, vomiting, heart pain, etc.).

Moderate and severe degrees of algomenorrhea occur in every tenth patient.

Causes of Primary Dysmenorrhea

Causes of primary dysmenorrhea:

  • Physiological - a violation of the synthesis of hormones. There is an increased production of prostaglandins - substances responsible for the contraction of the uterus during PMS. Their excessive amount leads to a strong uterine contraction and, consequently, to the emergence of pain. Also, discomfort creates an increased production of adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.
  • Psychological - patient's fear before menstruation and neurological disorders. Reduced pain threshold, psychoemotional instability and other neurological disorders exacerbate the perception of pain,
  • Magnesium deficiency in the blood,
  • Congenital malformations of connective tissue
  • Vascular disorders
  • Atypical position of the uterus, its underdevelopment and malformations.

Primary dysmenorrhea can happen:

  • Adrenergic in which the body during critical days increases the level of adrenaline, norepinephrine and dopamine - special hormones that can affect the well-being of women. As a result, a violation of various body functions occurs, causing, along with the main signs of the disease, a change in skin color and heartbeat. Due to impaired blood circulation, the skin of the face turns pale, the hands and feet become cold and become bluish.
  • Parasympathetic characterized by hypersecretion of serotonin - another important hormone. To the general symptoms characteristic of this disease, swelling, sweating, weight gain on the eve of critical days associated with fluid retention in tissues are added.

Treatment of painful periods: should I go to the gynecologist?

The goal of treatment of dysmenorrhea is to identify the cause of the disease, its elimination and the elimination of pain. The gynecologist prescribes therapy based on the form of dysmenorrhea, the nature of the pain syndrome, its cause and the individual characteristics of the patient.

Most women "treat" menstrual pain with drugs that relieve pain. However, they believe that such a decision is the best way to avoid visiting the doctor. In fact, dysmenorrhea can be a symptom of a serious gynecological disease.

Temporarily eliminating the pain, you will not get rid of the cause that causes it, so a visit to the gynecologist is only a matter of time. This is especially true of secondary dysmenorrhea, arising after the normal flow of menstruation. This pathology often occurs as a result of inflammation of one of the organs of the reproductive system.

Drug treatment of dysmenorrhea

Drug treatment is based on the use of several groups of drugs that reduce pain during menstruation:

  • Progestins - hormonal drugs used to update the mucous membrane of the uterus and relax its muscles,
  • Oral contraceptives - suppress the ovulation process, reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins, which reduces the frequency and amplitude of uterine muscle contraction and, consequently, pain syndrome,
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - drugs that suppress the production of prostaglandins (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, nimesulide).

In some cases, the appropriate appointment of such drugs as:

  • sedatives
  • vitamin complexes,
  • homeopathic remedies that normalize the menstrual cycle and facilitate the general condition during menstruation,
  • metabolic products that compensate for the deficiency of magnesium and potassium in the body,
  • antispasmodics that reduce spasm of the muscles of the uterus.

Physical therapy, as a rule, is prescribed to a woman in combination with drug treatment and is used in the second phase of the cycle. In many cases, fit:

  • acupuncture,
  • electrophoresis
  • phonophoresis
  • massage,
  • ultrasound therapy
  • manual therapy
  • treatment with pulses of electric current,
  • UV treatment,
  • therapy with laser or magnetic radiation,
  • breathing exercises,
  • psychological help,
  • autotraining.

Treatment of menstrual pain according to the type of disease

Treatment of dysmenorrhea is determined by the primary disease and may have a radically different medical approach.

  • Endometriosis is a pathological proliferation of uterine tissue that causes pain during menstruation, requires surgical removal of nodes with further hormonal correction.
  • Hormonal disorders - if, as a result of a blood test for hormones, the patient reveals hormonal disturbances, a rational solution would be to take hormonal drugs, which are selected by a specialist individually, depending on the violations detected.
  • Infectious-inflammatory processes - as already mentioned, the cause of dysmenorrhea can also be inflammation of the pelvic organs, which is often infectious. The cause of this phenomenon may be, in particular, a sexually transmitted infection. Treatment in this case will have antibiotics, which the doctor will select on the basis of the sensitivity of the identified pathogen.
  • Expansion of the pelvic veins - is eliminated by taking vasoconstrictor drugs.
  • Tumors of the pelvic organs - any neoplasms of the pelvic localization, both malignant and benign, may be accompanied by pain, which increases during menstruation. Treatment in such situations may require surgery, which in most cases is performed by the modern method of laparoscopy. It is worth adding that laparoscopy does not require dissection of the abdominal wall, does not leave ugly scars. Recovery after the procedure occurs very quickly and without complications.
  • Adhesions, as well as neoplasms, dysmenorrhea, which occurs for a similar reason, is often treated by laparoscopic means.

The need for surgical intervention appears only in severe form of dysmenorrhea, which is caused by the presence of pathologies of the reproductive system organs of the woman.

Where to go for the diagnosis and treatment of menstrual pain in St. Petersburg

Examination of these conditions is best done in specialized gynecological clinics with modern diagnostic equipment. In SPB, the Diana clinic deals with the treatment and diagnosis of pain during menstruation.

Here gynecologists work with the highest category, there is a new ultrasound machine, a modern laboratory. The cost of expert pelvic ultrasound is only 1000 rubles. The conclusion is issued on hand.

Some medical terms

Primary dysmenorrhea is a pathological condition that is characterized by painful sensations in the stomach that occur during menstruation. The nature of the pain is pulling or cramping. The second name for this phenomenon is algodysmenorrhea.

Painful critical days occur mainly in adolescents and girls under 25 years of age. The most severe discomfort is felt on the first day of menstruation. It is localized in the abdomen and lower back. The occurrence of pain during menstruation is associated with intense contractions of the uterus.

The clinical picture in this pathology:

  1. Monthly painful sensations appear 12–20 hours before the onset of menstrual flow. Their duration is from 1 to 3 days.
  2. Localization of pain - lower back and lower abdomen. Sometimes in these areas there is aching discomfort that extends to the perineum and hips.
  3. The general state of health worsens, weakness, fast fatigability appear.
  4. Mood changes due to poor health.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is called gynecological pathology, which is characterized by organic changes in the pelvic organs. It usually occurs in the presence of diseases such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, uterine ectropion.

The nature of pain in secondary dysmenorrhea is more pronounced. Women who encounter it resort to medical cupping, as it is difficult to endure severe discomfort.

If they are painful from the very first menstruation

Primary dysmenorrhea appears at a young age. Very painful periods in adolescents are associated with the development of the organs of their reproductive system.

Factors provoking primary algomenorrhea:

  1. Hormonal imbalance. Usually in adolescents, it occurs due to excessive production of dopamine by the body. Painful menstruation in this case is accompanied by tachycardia, insomnia, and frequent constipation.
  2. Malfunction of the parasympathetic nervous system. Menstruation pains are caused by an increase in serotonin and a decrease in heart rate. Also, this violation provokes a decrease in temperature and a malfunction of the digestive system.
  3. Genital tuberculosis. In young girls, this disease appears due to the abnormal development of the pelvic organs. It can also be triggered by salpingoophoritis. Painful sensations during critical days, arising from this disease, are exacerbated in spring and autumn.
  4. Lack of magnesium in the body. Accompanied by not only increasing discomfort during menstruation, but also frequent constipation, the development of myopathy.
  5. Dysplastic anomaly of the connective tissue. With this disease, girls are faced not only with painful periods, but also with lengthening of the limbs and spinal deformity.
  6. Neuropsychiatric diseases. The nature of the perception of pain is changing, it is felt more clearly.
  7. Anomaly of the location of the uterus. With this pathology often born. It is characterized by a difficult outflow of menstrual blood.

If your period has become painful recently

Secondary dysmenorrhea often appears after childbirth. This is a menstrual syndrome, characterized by very severe pain, which makes itself felt regularly.

Pathology arises mainly due to gynecological diseases or infections on the genital mucosa.

Factors provoking the disease dysmenorrhea:

  1. Inflammation of the uterus and appendages. Gynecological illnesses of an inflammatory nature are always associated with pain that occurs during menstruation, as well as during urination. They are often provoked by hypothermia.
  2. Endometriosis and uterine fibroids. These are dangerous diseases that are characterized by the rapid growth of the endometrium outside the uterus. This process causes severe pain during menstruation.
  3. Venous dilation caused by varicose veins.
  4. Cicatricial uterine deformity.
  5. The presence in the small pelvis adhesions or polyp.

Treatment and Prevention

Women who regularly deal with this pathology should know what to do in case of painful periods. Algomenorrhea is not considered a normal occurrence. Treatment of this disease is necessary.

Regardless of age, a woman should receive medical care if she has dysmenorrhea symptoms on a regular basis.

Treatment of this disease necessarily includes the use of painkillers. You can take an antispasmodic or analgesic, such as Spazmalgon, Analgin, No-silo or Nurofen.

In addition to drug treatment, physiotherapy or folk remedies will help alleviate the condition. If severe pains during menstruation were provoked by psycho-emotional tension, stress or depression, it is recommended to undergo a course of psychotherapy.

Prevention of the appearance of "female" pathologies is a regular examination by a gynecologist.

Prevention of Algomenorrhea

Prevention of algomenorrhea is a few simple activities.

First, it is important to remember the golden rule: it is easier to prevent the disease than to try to cure it later. An annual consultation of a competent specialist will help prevent any gynecological ailments, including painful periods.

Secondly, you need to make adjustments to your lifestyle. It has been scientifically proven that people who play sports and eat right are sick less often. Therefore, in order to reduce the likelihood of severe discomfort during menstruation, it is necessary:

  1. Workout.
  2. There are more products containing vitamins necessary for the body.
  3. Minimize the amount of fatty foods.
  4. Give up bad habits, including smoking.

Thirdly, before the beginning of the month is recommended to take a bath with essential oils. This will help calm the nerves and tune in to the positive.

Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

With painful periods, psycho-emotional stress should be avoided. Treatment of dysmenorrhea involves:

  1. Quitting smoking and alcohol.
  2. Drug therapy.
  3. Moderate exercise.
  4. Electrophoresis
  5. Maintain a menstrual calendar to track the shift cycle.

Pain relievers help relieve pain. Before the start of critical days, you should take sedatives, such as Fitoset. To alleviate the condition with menstruation, you can use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory tablets. For example, doctors often prescribe Butadion for women.

Treatment of secondary dysmenorrhea

Regular painful menstruation indicates the pathological processes in the body, so they should be treated.

Secondary dysmenorrhea often occurs due to diseases of the genital organs. To alleviate the condition of a woman suffering from this disease, drug therapy should be prescribed, including the administration of antifungal and anti-inflammatory drugs.

For example, when painful menstruation accompanying gynecological pathology, doctors prescribe Duphaston.

Sometimes, only surgical intervention helps to relieve strong menstrual discomfort. This applies to cases where new growths, adhesions or scarring are present in the uterine region.

Primary dysmenorrhea

Primary dysmenorrhea usually manifested in adolescence, but not immediately, but after 1-2 years after puberty. Primary dysmenorrhea is characterized by the absence of organic changes in the pelvic organs. Первое время боли не ярко выражены, вполне терпимы, а другие симптомы: тошнота, слабость и т. п. отсутствуют. Однако с течением времени могут проявляться дополнительные симптомы, которые сопровождаются усилением болей и увеличением их длительности.Therefore, distinguished and uncompensated forms of primary dysmenorrhea are distinguished.

Compensated form characterized by a persistent severity of symptoms.

With uncompensated form intensity of pain increases over time.

Secondary dysmenorrhea

Secondary dysmenorrhea is a consequence of organic changes in the pelvic organs and can occur in women over 30 years old. As a rule, pain appears a day or several hours before the onset of menstruation and passes with it or a little later. The bleeding is very heavy, with clots.

Tips for reducing pain during menstruation

There is no universal remedy to conquer pain, in this case. Each woman finds her, the most appropriate way, which, if not eliminate the pain at all, but helps to significantly reduce it. Before you start taking painkillers, you can try to reduce the pain with non-drug drugs.

  • Relieve tension and pain will help hot foot bath.
  • You can also try alternation of warm and cool sitting baths. They help to cope with stagnant processes in the pelvic cavity. They should be done in the morning and evening.
  • Can be put to the stomach and legs dry heatFor example, hot towels, bags of hot sand or bran.
  • It is noticed that coping with pain during menstruation helps diet with low sugar and fat, low alcohol and no caffeine.
  • Reduce pain with monthly help Raspberry, Catnip and Peppermint Teas. You can drink them in any quantity. Such teas are most effective if you drink them in small sips and hot.
  • Good effect gives general strengthening and tempering of the body. It is recommended to perform a set of physical exercises. As you know, the most severe pain experienced by women who are poorly prepared physically. It is enough daily (except for critical days) to perform elementary exercises to strengthen the press in different positions. Crouching and running in the morning, you need to develop the muscles of the pelvis and hips.
  • When sedentary work is recommended to be more often in the fresh air and spend time actively. Pain during menstruation becomes noticeably less, if you regularly pour cold water or at least take a cool shower.

Recipes of traditional medicine

Traditional medicine offers many ways to alleviate pain during menstruation.

Herbal Fees help with heavy and painful periods.

  • Collection number 1. Take 5 parts of the rhizome of Potentilla erect, shepherd's bag, yarrow and 2 parts of oak bark. On 1 cup boiling water put 1 tbsp. spoon of herbal. Bring to a boil and keep on low heat for 5 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand 15 minutes, then strain. Drink with heavy menstruation 1 cup of broth twice a day.
  • Collection number 2. Take equal parts of the grass knotweed, shepherd's bag, mistletoe of white. On 2 cups boiling water add 2 tbsp. collection spoon, insist 1 hour, then strain. Drink 1 glass twice a day. Reception start 3-5 days before the onset of menstruation and continue the whole period.
  • Collection number 3. Take in equal parts valerian root, grass, yarrow and Potentilla goose. On 1 cup boiling water add 2 teaspoons of collection, leave for 20 minutes and strain. Take 1/2 cup with heavy menstruation 4 times a day.
  • Collection number 4. Take 5 parts of Potentilla Goose, 3 parts of the centaury, and 1 part each of horsetail and knotweed grass. On 1 cup boiling water add 1 tbsp. spoon collection, insist 1 hour, drain. Drink sips for painful menstruation during the day.
  • Elecampane. For 1 cup of boiling water, take 1 teaspoon of chopped root, hold over low heat for 10–15 minutes, then remove from heat and leave for 4 hours. Drink with irregular and painful periods, as well as for the prevention of preterm birth 1 tbsp. spoon broth 3-4 times a day.
  • Wild strawberry.
    • Recipe number 1. For 2 cups cold boiling water take 1 tbsp. spoon strawberry leaves, insist 8 hours, then strain. Drink daily for 1/2 cup.
    • Recipe number 2. For 1 cup boiling water take 1 tbsp. spoonful of leaves, leave for 30 minutes, then strain. Drink 1 tbsp. spoon broth 3-4 times a day.
  • Stinging nettle. Take 1 teaspoon of juice from fresh nettle leaves and dissolve in 1/4 cup of water. Drink before a meal for 20 minutes, thrice a day.
  • Silverweed goose. For 1 cup of boiling water, take 20 g of Potentilla grass goose, heat under a lid in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool, then strain. Take 4–5 times a day for 1 / 4–1 / 2 cup. The remaining grass to impose in the form of a compress on the lower abdomen daily, starting one week before the arrival of menstruation and before they expire.
  • Oregano ordinary.
    • Recipe number 1. At 1 cup boiling water take 2 tbsp. spoons of herbs. Insist 3-4 hours in a thermos. Drink three times a day for 20-40 minutes before meals.
    • Recipe number 2. Prepare alcohol tincture. For 150 ml of vodka, take 10 g of grass. Insist 7-10 days in a dark place, shake occasionally. Take 30-40 drops 3-4 times a day, starting a week before the arrival of menstruation and before they end.
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Dysmenorrhea: what is this diagnosis?

Dysmenorrhea is understood to be a problem, which means that every month during the menstruation a woman experiences severe cramping pain, which is accompanied by a host of other unpleasant sensations: nausea, pressure drop, severe headache and dizziness, weakness or fainting, etc. All this exhausts the patient, makes her inoperable (many women do not go to work on such days). With dysmenorrhea, memory deteriorates and the temperature may rise. And this is not a unique syndrome: up to half of all women on the planet suffer from such manifestations.

Why does dysmenorrhea occur?

First, distinguish dysmenorrhea "primary" and "secondary." One manifests at the beginning of maturation and is not associated with injuries or deformation of the reproductive organs, the other is a response to surgical interventions, unsuccessful installation of a contraceptive helix, etc. Most likely, primary dysmenorrhea occurs due to an excess of prostaglandins that are formed from endometrial deaths during menstruation cells. But why not all women do this is unclear. As for dysmenorrhea of ​​the secondary type, it is caused by mechanical changes in the structure of the reproductive system and inflammatory processes.

It is highly likely that dysmenorrhea will manifest itself if a woman has:

  • malformations of the uterus, tubes and ovaries,
  • varicose veins of the uterus,
  • pathological growth of the endometrium was diagnosed (endometriosis),
  • underdeveloped genitals
  • uterus with a bend,
  • cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix uteri), adnexitis (inflammation of the tubes and ovaries), ovarian cysts,
  • myoma tumor
  • adhesions in the fallopian tubes,
  • disrupted the production of prostaglandins - agents of inflammation and pain in the body,
  • broken uterine ligaments (so-called. "Allen-Masters Syndrome")
  • hormone imbalance
  • installed contraceptive spiral.

Dysmenorrhea is also prone to girls of subtle, asthenic physique. However, all these are only tendencies, and as a matter of fact, nobody is insured from pathologically painful periods.

How can I stop dysmenorrhea on their own?

If it is known that there are no acute inflammatory processes and tumors, and we are talking only about dysmenorrhea, it makes sense to take simple antispasmodics during menstruation (drotaverine in any form, spazmalgon, etc.), reducing movement and social activity to the maximum.

Doctors recommend drugs that suppress the release of prostaglandins to relieve the symptoms of dysmenorrhea: these are primarily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac or ibuprofen, nimesulide (brand names - “nise”, “nimesil”), and also indomethacin. Aspirin, which is also a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, is undesirable to use against dysmenorrhea, as it may increase bleeding too much. It is believed that nimesulide is the best available option.

What can be done to prevent dysmenorrhea?

Regular check-ups at the gynecologist for excessive growth of the endometrium and inflammations are a preventive agent number one. As mentioned above, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially nimesulide, work well in advance of the symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Women prone to dysmenorrhea, you can not choose the intrauterine device as a contraceptive, and you can not allow any curettage of the uterus, including abortion.

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