Life

Neoplasm or birth of life

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Sudden appearance of warts on the skin, warts, moles always cause concern, and not only because of a cosmetic defect. Sometimes even ordinary freckles can become an alarming bell to oncology. On the advice of doctors, cancer cells should be removed in time, leading to any neoplasm.

Types of neoplasms

All tumors can be divided into two large groups: benign and malignant. The first group includes:

  • nevi (moles),
  • warts
  • hemangiomas (congenital vascular neoplasm),
  • clam
  • condylomas
  • fibroids (including fibroids and fibroadenomas),
  • papillomas
  • fatty tumor (lipoma).

Malignancy of tumors occurs as a result of the influence of harmful conditions, when cancer cells begin to change and there is:

  • melanoma (melanoblastoma),
  • sarcoma (including liposarcoma, lymphosarcoma and fibrosarcoma),
  • epithelioma.

The intermediate group of pretumor states includes:

  • leukoplakia,
  • cutaneous horn
  • senile keratoma
  • basal cell carcinoma

Causes of Tumors

Virtually any tumor occurs due to atypical cell division. At the same time, they usually become larger or they increase, developing into a new growth. Normally, cell division is always in balance between new and dead. This harmony can be broken for various reasons. The most common among them are:

  • UV rays (in other words, frequent exposure to the sun) is the main cause of melanoma,
  • active use of tanning equipment, which increases the risk of skin cancer by two thirds
  • hereditary factor (proven genetic predisposition to the total number of nevi),
  • elderly age,
  • human papillomavirus (carcinogenic risk, causing cervical cancer, for example),
  • skin injury (cause excessive regeneration),
  • stress, nerve overload,
  • radiation exposure
  • hormonal disorders,
  • white skin with pink freckles,
  • failure in the immune system
  • colds,
  • environmental factor (living in polluted cities),
  • sedentary lifestyle, inadequate stay in the fresh air, violation of work and rest schedules, chronic sleep deprivation, unbalanced diet with a predominance of fast food or “on the run”,
  • nicotine and alcohol abuse
  • work with harmful substances
  • chronic fatigue syndrome in residents of large cities, which is caused by a furious rhythm of life, exhaust emissions, inadequate stay outside the city in nature.

Preventive actions

Genetics, though affects the appearance of tumors, however, represents a fairly low percentage relative to all types of tumors. This suggests that for the most part we are able to avoid the appearance of tumors, if we introduce into our lifestyle a number of useful changes:

  • avoid direct sunlight
  • give up tanning,
  • smear your skin with sunscreens with a high SPF factor, selecting them for your phenotype,
  • choose cosmetics more carefully, look at the label, composition,
  • take care of your health, namely: stop smoking and reduce alcohol consumption, review your diet, sleep for at least 6-8 hours, go out in the fresh air, play sports or other physical activities,
  • monitor your state of mind: do not fuss, bring more dimension and calm into your life, avoid stress and nervous overstrain, do not throw your hobbies,
  • increase the body's resistance to infections,
  • use personal care products in spas, saunas, gyms, fitness centers, swimming pools to avoid human papillomavirus infections.

Treatment methods

As a rule, sudden warts on the body, papillomas, fibromas, growing nevi and other neoplasms have to be removed, even if they are benign, in order to avoid them developing into malignant tumor.

Our medical center uses the latest generation of tools for this - a laser method of removing tumors, which is absolutely reliable and safe. It meets all the requirements of international certification and practice in the field of treatment of tumors of various types and in most cases guarantees the elimination of a neoplasm at one time.

Signs of cysts

In young women, cysts are mostly functional. Some of them disappear themselves, others linger for a long time, develop. These neoplasms are also endometrioid and dermoid; observation and expectation cannot be eliminated from them. And their development in the absence of treatment is inevitable. And yet not knowing that she has a cyst, the woman feels:

  • pain and heaviness in the abdomen, feelings of bursting,
  • general malaise, weakness,
  • nausea, sometimes leading to vomiting,
  • discomfort during sex,
  • the increasing need to urinate more often,
  • problems in the bowels, manifested by constipation or diarrhea.

One of the signs of the presence of ovarian cysts are menstrual dysfunction. With the growth of neoplasm, a delay occurs. At one point, instead of menstruation, spotting is detected. The cyst prevents the ovary from working properly, that is, the exit of the germ cell, the subsequent formation of the corpus luteum. This violates the quantitative presence of hormones. Changes in the balance of substances can also be caused by other manifestations that are not quite typical for cysts:

  • pressure surges
  • increased skin greasiness
  • weight gain.

But how does it happen that they mixed up an ovarian cyst with pregnancy? After all, the first is localized on the genital gland, and the future child develops in the uterus.

Signs of pregnancy

There are quite a few signs indicating the imminent appearance of a new person:

If we compare the verbal description of the signs of nucleation in the organism of a new life and growth of a neoplasm on the ovary, it does not seem to be surprising that someone has confused the cyst with pregnancy. In addition, future mothers, like women with this pathology, can deteriorate their skin, increase their pressure, and begin to grow in weight.

But the similarity of signs is not the only reason for which confusion is possible. Based on the patient survey only, no diagnosis is made. But if you suspect one of the changes in the reproductive system, ultrasound is always prescribed. But even after it, in some cases, ambiguity or even a substitution of diagnoses remain.

Why can be confused

Is it possible to confuse an ovarian cyst with pregnancy, despite the use of ultrasound, the question is not idle, because such cases are known. There are subjective and objective reasons for the phenomenon:

  • The uterus in both conditions is enlarged, and the endometrium thickened. For pregnancy, it is natural, because the body is preparing to bear the fetus. Hormones create conditions for a long process of carrying. The cyst itself changes the composition of substances or arises against the background of a disorder in this area. Therefore, on ultrasound, it is seen as edematous, spherical, in magnitude corresponding to several weeks of pregnancy.
  • If the level of hCG in the mother’s blood is at the lower limit of permissible values, the fertilized egg is not visualized. Even ultrasound with a vaginal sensor does not help. But the enlarged ovary from which the female reproductive cell emerged, soon fertilized, can be mistaken for a cyst.
  • Neoplasms are also not always clearly visible. Especially often it happens with a dermoid type of cyst. A thickened endometrium and edematous uterus falsely indicate pregnancy.
  • Insufficient qualification of a specialist and poor-quality equipment. Recently, both are becoming more common. Therefore, there is no doubt whether the ovarian cyst can be confused with pregnancy.
  • Inflammation becomes one of the reasons for the appearance of a neoplasm. It also causes an increase in BT. And if a woman is watching her, she will find a sign, but regard it incorrectly, taking the cyst as a fulfilled dream soon to become a mother.

We recommend reading the article on ovarian cyst. From it you will learn about the types of formations, features of cysts on the right and left ovaries, possible complications and consequences of damage to the neoplasm.

The growing number of obstructive gynecological diseases, their “rejuvenation”, the forced postponement of motherhood due to the need to make a career have become commonplace. And it leaves no doubt whether it is possible to confuse a cyst with future replenishment in the family. Pathology is becoming more common. But it happens the other way around: “cyst” turns out to be pregnancy. Therefore, it is important not to fall into despair, but to be thoroughly and thoroughly examined.

What is a tumor?

A tumor is called any pathological formation in the body, caused by the uncontrolled growth and reproduction of atypical (abnormal) cells. Doctors also use the term "neoplasm" or "neoplasm".

Primary tumors consist of cells of the organ or tissue where they begin to develop, i.e. primary brain tumors occur in the substance of the brain. In addition, there are tumors that originated in other organs, but then quickly spread (metastasized) to the brain or spinal cord. However, most CNS tumors in children are primary, that is, they occur in the central nervous system itself. Primary CNS tumors rarely spread beyond the brain and spinal cord.

How does a tumor appear?

Every healthy cell undergoes a certain life cycle: nucleation, division (mitosis), maturation and obtaining a certain function (differentiation), aging (senescence) and death (apoptosis). The time for each stage is determined by the body and this key property ensures the preservation of health.

Sometimes the conditional “internal clock” fails: the cells begin to divide uncontrollably, there is no differentiation and aging, etc. Such a violation of the cell cycle and leads to the appearance of a tumor.

Scientists believe that hereditary or (as a rule!) Acquired defects (changes) in genes are the main causes of disorders that can cause a cell to break its “program”. After all, they regulate the mechanism of the cell (transcription factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor gene), are responsible for the interaction between cells (receptor genes) and their own "repair" in case of any violations (restorative genes).

Causes of tumor

Rare congenital defects of genes and mutations (hereditary and acquired) increase the risk of cancer, but they are not hereditary. Some external influences can lead to spontaneous mutation - for example, ultraviolet rays or X-rays, chemicals, infections, etc.

At the moment in science there is no evidence that any behavior or lifestyle of a child or adolescent leads to the occurrence of a tumor. The disease does not appear because you did something or, on the contrary, missed. Popular assumptions that tumors arise due to psychological causes (conflicts, loss experiences, etc.) are false from the point of view of science. These and other myths about oncology are in the article. Read more about risk factors in the article.

Mitosis(Greek mitos -a thread) the main form of cell division, the essence of which lies in the uniform distribution of chromosomes between the daughter cells, during some pathological processes, the course of mitosis is disturbed.

Differentiation cells and tissues (lat. differentia difference) - the emergence of differences between homogeneous cells and tissues, their change in the course of ontogenesis, leading to specialization.

Senescence(lat. senesco - to grow old) - aging. Body and mental changes due to aging.

Apoptosis(lat. apoptosis) the process of "programmed" cell death in the process of tissue differentiation and transformation. Apoptosis is regulated by hormones it can be induced artificially.

Cell cycle the period of cell life from the end of one division to the end of the next division, including interphase and mitosis.

Transcription(lat. transcriptio - rewriting) - the process of RNA synthesis using DNA as a matrix, occurring alive cages. Those. this is the transfer of genetic information from DNC on RNA

Transcription factors auxiliary proteins that facilitate RNA polymers to pass through the main stages of transcription, as well as ensure the selective nature of transcription.

Oncogenes (Greek onkos growth, tumor) - genes that turn normal eukaryotic cells into malignant by means of oncoproteins encoded by them. Oncogenes are present in DNA-containing viruses (adeno-, papovaviruses, etc.), RNA-containing (retroviruses) and in the genome of tumor cells.

Tumor suppressor gene the gene responsible for the restoration of the normal phenotype (wild type), changed as a result of a mutation in another gene.

Causes and types of neoplasms

The human body consists of various cells that make up vital organs. In the process of vital activity, their regeneration and growth take place. Some mechanisms of development cause inhibition or suspend the processes.

Until now, science does not know the exact causes of cell growth malfunction. It is these failures that cause the cells of the body to randomly divide. The result is disappointing - a tumor or, otherwise, a tumor.

Tumors are classified according to 2 main sections: benign and malignant.

Benign tumors

Benign neoplasms are composed of cells that do not spread throughout the body. A tumor with a positive history may increase, put pressure on other organs, but it does not multiply with blood and lymph flow.

Benign tumors do not pose a threat to life for people.

However, with a significant increase in these tumors can disrupt the work of other structures. There are cases when, when injuring benign neoplasms, they are reborn into malignant cancers.

Benign neoplasms include the following types of tumors:

The main difference between benign tumors and cancer is that their cells completely repeat the cells of the tissues on which they originated. After the treatment, the disease does not relapse.

Cancer tumors

Cancer cells are prone to active division.

Malignant neoplasms always tend to spread their abnormal cells throughout the body.

Getting to different places in the blood or lymph, malignant cells form new colonies. Violent reproduction is metastases that block the normal functioning of organs.

Cancer cells are reborn so that it is impossible to determine and identify which tissue cell formed the basis of the disease. The growth of malignant tumors is too fast, which often makes it impossible to make a diagnosis in the early stages of the disease.

Malignant neoplasms include:

  • Basalis,
  • Sarcoma
  • Melanoma,
  • Liposarcoma,
  • Keratome
  • Xeroderma,
  • Carcinoma,
  • Leukemia
  • Tehranomu
  • Lymphoma.

Cancer tumors bring not only a number of modifications in the general state of human health. They deplete the entire human body, bringing it to complete destruction. In the absence of the necessary treatment, this process develops at an accelerated pace.

To determine the qualitative orientation of the development of tumors by using a biopsy.

This analysis is required when detecting any neoplasm.

After diagnosis, a treatment regimen is prescribed.

After identifying and determining the neoplasm, various treatment methods are applied. Removal of tumors is a classic method. Nitrogen, a laser, a scalpel, and chemical coagulation are used to remove small benign tumors. Operations are usually quite simple, since they do not affect large blood vessels.

In malignant neoplasms, removal occurs only by surgery. In this case, part of the body is amputated. Further chemotherapy, radiation and various medications are prescribed. Removal of a cancer in the early stages of its development prolongs the life of the patient, sometimes for several years.

In this section, "New growth" can be found in detail:

  • About the causes of various tumors,
  • On the mechanisms of occurrence of certain tumors,
  • About cancer diseases of various organs,
  • About diagnosing
  • About neoplasm treatment methods,
  • About preventive measures preventing the development of tumors.

Identification and timely treatment of any disease, including tumors of various etiologies, is a guarantee of normal life support and functioning of the body, prolongation of life expectancy. As soon as medicine can predetermine failures in the human body in time, this will become the basis for the fight against cancer and neoplasms.

Spontaneous Spawn of Life Edit

This theory was common in ancient China, Babylon and ancient Egypt as an alternative to creationism, with which it coexisted. Aristotle (384–322 BC)e.), which is often proclaimed the founder of biology, adhered to the theory of spontaneous generation of life. According to this hypothesis, certain “particles” of a substance contain some kind of “active principle” which, under suitable conditions, can create a living organism. Aristotle was right in believing that this active principle was contained in a fertilized egg, but mistakenly believed that it was also present in sunlight, mud and rotting meat.

With the spread of Christianity, the theory of spontaneous generation of life was not honored, but this idea continued to exist somewhere in the background for many centuries [ source not specified 2087 days ] .

Up to the 19th century, the notion of “life force” existed in the scientific community - a kind of all-penetrating substance that makes living from nonliving live (frogs from swamps, fly larvae from meat, worms from soil, etc.). The famous scientist Van Helmont described an experiment in which he allegedly created mice in three weeks. For this they needed a dirty shirt, a dark wardrobe and a handful of wheat. Van Helmont considered human sweat to be the active principle in the process of mouse birth.

In 1668, the Italian biologist and physician Francesco Redi approached the problem of the origin of life more strictly and questioned the theory of spontaneous generation. Redi established that the little white worms appearing on rotting meat are the larvae of flies. After conducting a series of experiments, he obtained data confirming the idea that life can arise only from a previous life (the concept of biogenesis). In pots of meat covered with gauze, the flies would not start.

These experiments, however, did not lead to the abandonment of the idea of ​​spontaneous generation, and although this idea somewhat receded into the background, it continued to remain the main version of the origin of life.

While Redi’s experiments seemed to disprove the spontaneous generation of flies, the first microscopic studies of Anthony van Leeuwenhuk reinforced this theory with reference to microorganisms. Leeuwenhuk himself did not enter into disputes between supporters of biogenesis and spontaneous nucleation, but his observations under a microscope gave food to both theories.

In 1860, the French chemist Louis Pasteur took up this problem. However, Pasteur did not raise the question of the origin of life. He was interested in the problem of spontaneous generation of microbes in connection with the possibility of combating infectious diseases. If the “vital force” exists, then it is pointless to fight diseases: how many microbes can be destroyed, they self-generate again. If microbes always come from the outside, then there is a chance. [3] By his experiments, he proved that bacteria are omnipresent, and that non-living materials can easily be contaminated by living beings if they are not properly sterilized. The scientist boiled in water various environments in which microorganisms could be formed. With additional boiling microorganisms and their spores died. Pasteur attached to the S-tube a sealed flask with a free end. The spores of microorganisms settled on a curved tube and could not penetrate into the nutrient medium. Well-boiled nutrient medium remained sterile, it did not reveal the origin of life, despite the fact that access to air and "vital force" was provided. Conclusion: “life force” does not exist, and at the present time microorganisms do not self-generate from non-living substrate. [4] [5]

However, this experiment does not at all prove that the living can never spawn from the nonliving. The Pasteur experiment proves only the impossibility of microorganism nucleation specifically in the nutrient media that he used, under a very limited range of conditions and for short periods of time. But it does not prove the impossibility of self-generation of life for hundreds of millions of years of chemical evolution, in very different environments and under different conditions (especially under the conditions of the early Earth: in an oxygen-free atmosphere filled with methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide, while passing electrical discharges and t d.) In principle, this experiment cannot concern the question of the initial birth of life, if only because Pasteur used meat and yeast broths (as well as urea and blood) in his experiments [3], and before the birth of life there was no yeast or meat. And the more Pasteur’s experiment doesn’t refute modern scientific theories and hypotheses about the origin of life in deep-sea hot hydrothermal springs, in geothermal springs, on mineral crystals, in outer space, in the protoplanetary nebula from which the Solar System was formed, etc.

Stationary Theory Edit

According to the theory of stationary state, the Earth never arose, but existed forever, it was always able to support life, and if it changed, it was very insignificant. According to this version, species also never arose, they always existed, and each species has only two possibilities - either a change in numbers or extinction.

However, the hypothesis of a stationary state is fundamentally contrary to the data of modern astronomy, which indicate the finite time of existence of any stars and, accordingly, planetary systems around stars. According to modern estimates, based on taking into account the rates of radioactive decay, the age of the Earth, the Sun and the Solar System is estimated at ≈ 4.6 billion years. Therefore, this hypothesis is not considered academic science.

Proponents of this hypothesis do not recognize that the presence or absence of certain fossil residues may indicate the time of appearance or extinction of a particular species, and cites as an example the representative of the fin-finned fish - the coelacanth. According to palaeontological data, the cross-finder extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. However, this conclusion had to be reconsidered when living representatives of cross-fined were found in the Madagascar region. Proponents of the theory of the stationary state argue that only by studying living species and comparing them with fossils, it can be concluded that extinction, and even in this case it is very likely that it will turn out to be incorrect. Using paleontological data to confirm the theory of the stationary state, its supporters interpret the appearance of fossil remains in an environmental aspect. For example, they explain the sudden appearance of any fossil species in a certain stratum by increasing the number of its population or by moving it to places that are favorable for the preservation of residues. Theory steady state represents only historical or philosophical interest, since the conclusions of this theory contradict scientific data.

Theory Oparin - Haldane Edit

  • In 1924, the future academician Oparin published an article titled The Origin of Life, which in 1938 was translated into English and revived interest in the theory of self-generation. Oparin suggested that high concentration zones may spontaneously form in solutions of high-molecular compounds, which are relatively separated from the external environment and can maintain an exchange with it. He called them coacervate drops, or simply koatservaty.

According to his theory, the process that led to the emergence of life on Earth can be divided into three stages:

  • The appearance of organic matter
  • The appearance of proteins
  • The emergence of protein bodies

Astronomical studies show that both stars and planetary systems arose from gas-dust matter. Along with metals and their oxides, it contained hydrogen, ammonia, water, and the simplest hydrocarbon — methane.

The conditions for starting the process of formation of protein structures have been established since the appearance of the primary ocean (broth). In the aquatic environment, hydrocarbon derivatives could undergo complex chemical changes and transformations. As a result of this complication of molecules, more complex organic substances could be formed, namely carbohydrates.

Science has proven that as a result of using ultraviolet rays, it is possible to artificially synthesize not only amino acids, but also other organic substances. [6] [7] According to Oparin's theory, the next step along the path to the emergence of protein bodies could be the formation of coacervate drops. Under certain conditions, the aqueous shell of organic molecules acquired clear boundaries and separated the molecule from the surrounding solution. Molecules, surrounded by a water shell, combined to form multimolecular complexes - coacervates.

Coacervate drops could also occur when simply mixing a variety of polymers. At the same time, self-assembly of polymer molecules into multimolecular formations took place — visible drops under an optical microscope.

Drops were able to absorb substances from the outside like open systems. When various catalysts (including enzymes) were incorporated into coacervate drops, various reactions took place in them, in particular, polymerization of monomers coming from the external environment. Due to this, the drops could increase in volume and weight, and then split up into subsidiaries. Thus, coacervates could grow, multiply, carry out metabolism.

Further, the coacervate drops were subjected to natural selection, which ensured their evolution.

Similar views were also expressed by the British biologist John Haldane.

He tested the theory of Stanley Miller in 1953 in the Miller-Urey experiment. He put the mixture H2O, NH3CH4, CO2, CO into a closed vessel and began to pass through it electrical discharges (at a temperature of 80 ° C). It turned out that amino acids are formed [8]. Later, sugars and nucleotides were also obtained under different conditions [6]. He concluded that evolution can occur in a phase-isolated state from solution (coacervates). However, such a system cannot reproduce itself.

The theory was substantiated, except for one problem, on which almost all experts in the field of the origin of life long turned a blind eye. If spontaneously, by chance of random matrix-free syntheses, single successful protein molecules were created in the coacervate (for example, effective catalysts providing an advantage to this coacervate in growth and reproduction), how could they be copied for distribution inside the coacervate, and even more so for transmission to the coacervate descendants? The theory was unable to offer a solution to the problem of accurate reproduction — within the coacervate and in generations — isolated, randomly generated, efficient protein structures. However, it was shown that the first coacervates could form spontaneously from lipids synthesized abiogenically, and they could enter into symbiosis with “live solutions” - colonies of self-replicating RNA molecules, among which were lipozyme catalyzing synthesis, and such a community can be called by the body [9].

However, Richard Dawkins, in his “Selfish Gene”, where he sets out a genocentric view of evolution, suggested that not coacervate drops appeared in the primary broth, but the first replicator molecules capable of creating copies of themselves. Such a molecule was enough to arise once and copy itself further, using organic compounds from the environment (saturated with organic "broth"). Immediately after the appearance of the replicator, it began to distribute its copies throughout the seas, while smaller molecules that became “building blocks” did not become scarce, which forced the primary replicators to fight for survival with each other and evolve.

The origin of life in hot water Edit

The hypothesis about the origin of life near underwater volcanoes was expressed by LM Mukhin in the early 1970s [10]. Scientific studies show that the birth of life in mineral water and, in particular, geysers is most likely [11]. In 2005, Academician Yuri Viktorovich Natochin made a different assumption than the generally accepted concept of life at sea, and argued the hypothesis that the source of proto cells were water bodies with a predominance of K + ions, rather than sea water with the dominance of Na + ions [12]. In 2009, Armen Mulkidzhanyan and Mikhail Halperin, based on an analysis of the content of elements in a cell, also concluded that life probably did not originate in the ocean [13]. David Ward proved that in the hot mineral water appeared and now form stromatolites [14]. The most ancient stromatolites were found in Greenland. Their age is 3.5 billion years. In 2011, Tadashi Sugawara created a protocell in hot water [15]. Studies of the Marie-Lor Pont mineral serpentine in the geological formation of Isua, Greenland, in 2011 showed that life could originate in mud volcanoes [16]. Nobel Prize winner biologist Jack Shostak noted that we can more easily imagine the accumulation of organic compounds in primary lakes than in the ocean. The same opinion of a group of scientists led by Eugene Kunin [17].

Chemical evolution or prebiotic evolution - the first stage of life evolution, during which organic, prebiotic substances arose from inorganic molecules under the influence of external energy and breeding factors and due to the unfolding of self-organization processes characteristic of all relatively complex systems, which include most of the carbon-containing molecules.

Also, these terms denote the theory of the emergence and development of those molecules that are of fundamental importance for the emergence and development of living matter.

Genobiosis and Golobiosis Edit

Depending on what is considered primary, there are two methodological approaches to the question of the origin of life:

Genobiosis - methodological approach to the question of the origin of life, based on the belief in the primacy of the molecular system with the properties of the primary genetic code.

Golobioz - a methodological approach to the question of the origin of life, based on the idea of ​​the primacy of structures endowed with the ability to elemental metabolism with the participation of the enzyme mechanism.

RNA World as a Precursor to Modern Life Edit

By the 21st century, the Oparin – Haldane theory, which assumes the initial emergence of proteins, has practically given way to [18] more modern. The impetus for its development was the discovery of ribozymes - RNA molecules with enzymatic activity and therefore capable of combining functions that in these cells mainly perform proteins and DNA, that is, catalyzing biochemical reactions and storing hereditary information. Thus, it is assumed that the first living creatures were RNA-organisms without proteins and DNA, and their autocatalytic cycle formed by the very ribozymes capable of catalyzing the synthesis of their own copies could become their prototype. [nineteen]

Panspermia Edit

According to the theory of Panspermia, proposed by J. Liebig, in 1865 by the German scientist Hermann Eberhard Richter and finally formulated by the Swedish scientist Arrhenius in 1895, life could have been brought to Earth from space. Most likely to come from living organisms of extraterrestrial origin with meteorites and cosmic dust. This assumption is based on data on the high resistance of some organisms and their dispute to radiation, high vacuum, low temperatures and other influences. However, there are still no reliable facts confirming the extraterrestrial origin of microorganisms found in meteorites. But even if they came to Earth and gave rise to life on our planet, the question of the initial emergence of life would remain unanswered.

Francis Creek and Leslie Orgel proposed another option in 1973 - controlled panspermia, that is, the intentional "contamination" of the Earth (along with other planetary systems) by microorganisms delivered on unmanned spacecraft by a developed alien civilization, which may have been in front of a global catastrophe or just hoped to terraform other planets for future colonization [20]. They cited two main arguments in favor of their theory — the universality of the genetic code (known other variations of the code are used in the biosphere much less frequently and differ little from the universal one) and the significant role of molybdenum in some enzymes. Molybdenum is a very rare element for the entire solar system. According to the authors, the original civilization may have lived near the star, enriched with molybdenum.

Against the objection that the theory of panspermia (including controlled) does not solve the question of the origin of life, they put forward the following argument: on planets of another unknown type, the probability of the origin of life may initially be much higher than on Earth, for example, the presence of special minerals with high catalytic activity.

In 1981, F. Crick wrote a book, “Life itself: its origin and nature” [21], in which he outlines the hypothesis of controlled panspermia in more detail than in the article and in a popular form.

Academician of RAS A. Yu. Rozanov, head of the commission on astrobiology at the Russian Academy of Sciences, believes that life on Earth was brought from space [22].

Механизм формирования рака

В здоровом организме существует баланс между онкогенезом и противопухолевой защитой. Single carcinogenic mutations at the cell level always occur, but the immune system removes pathological changes, blocking the development of the neoplasm. The causes of the tumor are explained by an imbalance between oncogenes and protective genes (suppressors) - when mutant cells capable of reproduction remain under the influence of carcinogens while reducing the immune defense, this becomes the beginning of the formation of a neoplasm. From the first stage of carcinogenesis to the onset of cancer, it can take a long time (up to 10-20 years), but this does not change anything - the process is running, the time mine is laid and waiting in the wings. The main principles of the inexorable tumor growth include:

  • survival of a mutant cell with activation of oncogenes,
  • suppression of antitumor immunity (inactivation of suppressor genes),
  • both previous events must occur simultaneously in several cells (5-7) so that the likelihood of developing cancer becomes mandatory,
  • various organs and systems are affected by various factors of carcinogenesis,
  • cancer is a gene disease (the disease is not contagious),
  • the obligatory condition is the reproduction of pathological cellular structures with the obligatory transfer of gene information of a new generation of cells (tissue proliferation).

Tumor growth is a staged process: a gradual increase in neoplasm from a single cell to a cancer can take many years. The causes of the tumor should be sought not only in the action of carcinogens, but also in the weakening or absence of antitumor protection.

The appearance of a tumor is a gene mutation with a weakened immune system

Additional negative factors

For the implementation of cancer, additional negative factors are of great importance:

  • age (the older, the worse the immune defense and more chronic diseases),
  • sex (part of oncopathology is due to the sexual characteristics of a person),
  • familial predisposition (accumulation of altered genes increases the risk of developing certain types of tumors),
  • the natural environment (ultraviolet increases the risk of melanoma, the conditions of the extreme north contribute to the suppression of immunity),
  • ethnos (people of the same ethnos often suffer from certain types of cancer),
  • lifestyle and social environment (it is proved that these factors determine up to 90% of all types of oncology).

The main causes of the appearance of a tumor should be sought in genetic disorders that are formed against the background of the action of external and internal carcinogenic factors: cancer is a mutation of genes with a progressive development of a malignant neoplasm in the absence of antitumor immunity.

What is a benign tumor?

A benign tumor is a disease that occurs as a result of a violation of the mechanism of cell division and growth. As a result, their structure at a certain site changes, education appears unusual for the normal state of the body and, as a result, the manifestation of symptoms.

A feature of a benign tumor is slow growth. Often, education retains its original size for several years, after which comes full healing or its development into a malignant one. Another characteristic feature is the lack of influence on the body and the appearance of metastases. A tumor forms in one area where its slow development occurs. Other organs are not affected. If we compare a benign tumor with a malignant one, then in the case of the second, metastasis is not a particular danger. They are rapidly destroying the organs and tissues, leaving almost no chance for full recovery. With a benign education, the prognosis is mostly positive and after the course of therapy, as well as while maintaining a healthy lifestyle, the disease retreats.

It is possible to determine the benign growth by the following features:

The tumor is mobile, not connected to the surrounding tissues,

When pressed or touched, there is discomfort or pain,

With internal tumors there is a deterioration of health, fatigue, sleep disturbance,

External tumors of the mucous membranes and skin can bleed.

Often, benign tumors do not manifest themselves, which is difficult to diagnose. It is possible to detect the disease during a routine examination, pathological changes in the skin.

Causes of benign tumors

In the human body, cells always pass one way: the cell grows, develops and dies after 42 hours. It is replaced by a new cell, living for the same period. If, as a result of a certain effect on the body, the cell does not die, but continues to grow, then a tumor appears.

It is proved by science that benign formation is a consequence of DNA mutation, to which the following factors can lead:

Work in hazardous environments, regular inhalation of hazardous fumes and poisons,

Smoking, drug use, substance abuse,

Alcohol and other non-drinkable beverages

Frequent ultraviolet radiation

Lack of a normal day regimen (lack of sleep, work at night).

A study conducted by scientists has shown that every person has a predisposition to the formation of a benign tumor. You can warn her, observing a healthy lifestyle. This is especially true of people in whose families have previously met cancer. Heredity is another reason for the emergence of benign education.

Adverse effects on the body's cells have nervous stress. In combination with an impaired daily regimen, they create an increased risk of gene mutations.

Stage of tumor growth

In total, there are three stages in the development of a benign tumor: initiation, promotion, progression.

At this stage, detecting a mutational gene is almost impossible. Initiation is manifested by a change in the DNA cell under the influence of adverse factors. When this mutation is susceptible to two genes. One of them makes the modified cell immortal, and the second is responsible for its reproduction. If both processes occur, the tumor becomes malignant. When changing one gene, the formation remains benign.

In the second stage, the mutated cells begin active reproduction. For this is responsible carcinogenesis promoters. The promotion stage can last for several years and practically does not manifest itself. However, the diagnosis of benign growth at the very beginning of active cell multiplication makes it possible to stop the development of cancer. For this, therapy is carried out that regulates the action of promoters, and to stop the further action of the genome. But due to the lack of symptoms, it is problematic to detect the presence of the disease, which leads to its next stage of development.

Progression

The third stage of tumor growth is not final, but the further condition of the patient depends on it. Progression is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of mutation cells that form the tumor. By itself, it does not pose a danger to human life, but can lead to squeezing of neighboring organs. Also, a benign formation at the progression stage causes a deterioration of health, impaired functionality of the body, and the appearance of ugly spots on the skin. This facilitates the process of diagnosis and causes the patient to consult a specialist. Detecting a tumor at the progression stage is not difficult even without special equipment.

The time during which a benign tumor develops can vary from a few weeks to tens of years. Often the disease is diagnosed only after death during an autopsy. In this case, the tumor may not be the cause of death.

Stage progression is dangerous because the influence of adverse factors and the lack of treatment leads to the degeneration of the tumor. Mutation of genes continues, cells multiply more actively. Getting into the lumen of a blood vessel, they begin to spread throughout the body, settling on the organs. This process is called metastasis. At this stage, experts diagnose already malignant formation that threatens the patient's life.

Tumor growth

Tumor growth is also divided by the effects on human organs:

Expansive growth. It is characterized by the formation of an external tumor that does not penetrate into the tissue. As it grows, it displaces the organs, becoming covered with a capsule. The tissues surrounding the tumor atrophy and are replaced by connective tissue. The pace of its development is slow, can last for several years. It is difficult to diagnose such a tumor, patients show complaints of pain in other organs, undergo long-term treatment without positive results.

Infiltrative growth. It is characterized by rapid development, tissue damage. Often, infiltrative growth is characteristic of malignant tumors, but it is often found in benign tumors.

Appositional growth. It is characterized by the transformation of healthy cells into tumor cells, which leads to the rapid development of the disease. It is extremely rare, often affecting the organs of the peritoneum.

Types of benign tumors

A benign tumor can grow in any tissue. There are several types of tumors.

Fibroma is a tumor consisting of fibrous connective tissue. It has a small number of connective tissue spindle-shaped cells, fibers and blood vessels.

Fibroma occurs most frequently in women on the genitals. It manifests itself a violation of the menstrual cycle, infertility, severe pain during intercourse, painful and prolonged menstruation. Often there is intermenstrual bleeding, which leads to a deterioration in overall health, lower hemoglobin levels.

Also found subcutaneous fibroma, manifested by the formation of solid color. It can be diagnosed by a dense structure.

Lipoma is otherwise called a fatty tumor and is a formation that is practically the same as normal adipose tissue. When diagnosing a capsule is marked, which is characterized by the disease. Lipoma often occurs in women during menopause and can reach huge sizes.

Lipoma delivers a lot of inconvenience to the patient. It is mobile and painful, makes for a long time to be in a lying or sitting position.

Chondroma consists of cartilaginous tissue and has the appearance of solid tubercles. The cause of the development of benign education becomes injury or tissue damage. Chondroma can appear both in a single specimen and in a plural quantity, affecting mainly the extremities. The tumor develops slowly, it may not manifest itself. It is possible to identify chondroma in the diagnosis of the skin.

Neurofibromatosis

Doctors neurofibromatosis otherwise called Reklingauzena disease. The disease is the formation of a large number of fibroids and pigment spots. At the same time the inflammation of nerves joins. Symptomatology is pronounced, although it may be difficult to diagnose because of the involvement of several tissues in the tumor development process. Often there are incomplete forms of the disease, manifested by the formation of nodes on the sensory nerves.

Osteoma is a benign bone tissue formation. It has clear boundaries and rarely develops into a malignant tumor. Osteoma is a congenital disease and is formed as a result of the pathological development of the skeleton. More common single tumor of this type.

Myoma is a single or multiple encapsulated formations with a dense base. The disease develops in the muscle tissue and most often affects the female reproductive system. The cause of the tumor can be hormonal disorders, abortions, obesity.

Manifested by myoma violation of the menstrual cycle, copious and painful menstruation, infertility. If the disease is not cured before pregnancy, then the likelihood of miscarriage and fetal death is high. Myoma is inherited.

Angioma refers to a benign tumor that develops from the blood vessels. The disease is congenital, spreading mainly on the cheeks, lips, oral mucosa. Angioma is manifested by highly dilated winding vessels having a flat swollen shape. They are formed under the skin, but are perfectly visible on the surface of the integument. Another type of benign tumors - hemangiomas is very common, and congenital birthmarks are those with dilated capillaries. Such education does not always require treatment, it is only necessary to follow the elementary rules for the care of moles and systematic observation by a specialist.

But angiomas are not always safe. Under the influence of external factors (ultraviolet, damage), the disease can degenerate into a malignant tumor.

Lymphangioma

Lymphangioma is a benign tumor consisting of lymphatic vessels. It is formed in the period of embryonic development and continues to grow in early childhood. More often the lymphangioma stops in development, not representing threat for life.

The developmental glioma is similar to angioma, as it can manifest as hemorrhage. It is a neuroglia cells with processes.

Neuroma is a benign neoplasm that develops in the peripheral nerves and in the roots of the spinal cord. Slightly less common neuroma on the cranial nerves. The tumor looks like a lot of small nodes of different sizes.

Neuroma is a tumor that forms on various elements of the nervous system. The cause of the disease often becomes amputation and nerve damage. There are also congenital neuromas.

The disease manifests itself as pain in the area of ​​the tumor, reddening of the skin can occur.

Ganglioneuroma

This type of tumor develops predominantly in the abdominal cavity and is a dense formation of large size. They consist of nerve fibers and practically do not manifest themselves with slow development.

The disease begins to develop in the womb. There are a lot of reasons for this - disorders in the development of the nervous system, the effect of unfavorable factors on the mother's body during gestation, and various infectious diseases.

Paraganglioma

Paraganglioma is a tumor consisting of chromaffin cells. The disease can develop in any organs and tissues where these cells exist. The tumor is congenital, begins to manifest itself at an early age. The disease is a danger due to the development of metastasis.

It manifests itself with frequent headache, increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, tachycardia.

It is a formation in the form of small stems or nipples, in the center of which is a blood vessel. Papilloma is the most common type of benign tumor and is easily removed. There is no recurrence after surgery.

Papilloma occurs as a result of exposure to the papillomavirus. More often the disease affects the genitals and mucous membranes. The tumor appears dense formations, bringing discomfort and painful sensation when touched. Also referred to as papilloma warts, most of them are safe and do not require treatment. Exceptions are education, bleeding and bringing pain. The danger is growing and changing the color of the wart.

Adenoma has one characteristic feature - it repeats the shape of the organ on which it is formed. The tumor consists of glands and rarely regenerates into a malignant tumor.

More often, adenoma affects the prostate in men over the age of 45 years. The disease is manifested by painful and frequent urination, decreased sexual activity, early ejaculation, infertility. Adenoma does not pose a threat to a person, but can significantly degrade the quality of life and lead to mental disorders.

A cyst is a benign formation that has no clear boundaries. It consists of a soft cavity, often filled with liquid. Cyst develops rapidly, which represents a threat to the patient's life. In case of rupture of the tumor there is a risk of blood infection. Cysts rarely develop without symptoms. Appear on the genitals, peritoneum, bone tissue, brain.

The appearance of tumors

Benign tumors can have a different structure and structure:

Oval or round knot, similar to the structure of cauliflower and mushroom cap,

Tumors associated with body tissues have a leg (polyps),

Cysts are an elongated formation filled with fluid

In many cases, tumors permeate the tissue, due to which their boundary is not determined.

Treatment of benign tumors

Benign tumors diagnosed at an early stage of development are easily treatable. To identify the disease using several methods. Образования часто можно увидеть при ультразвуковом исследовании, проведении пальпации.To make an accurate diagnosis, experts examine the blood and, if necessary, pieces of tissue taken from a biopsy or laparoscopy.

The treatment of benign tumors depends on its type, stage of development and the condition of the patient. Disregard specialists this disease can not be! Even a small neoplasm can lead to sad consequences or long, costly treatment.

Modern medicine offers several effective methods of treating benign tumors, among which removal is the first. Surgical intervention helps prevent further development of the disease and eliminate the accumulation of mutated cells. After removal of the tumor, relapses do not occur, and the patient’s full recovery occurs. In rare cases, reoperation may be required when mutated cells grow.

Tumor removal

Removal of benign lesions occurs with the use of surgical instruments or a special laser. In order for the treatment to show positive results, the patient is carefully prepared for the operation. For this, the place of removal of the formation is treated with disinfectants, the patient is administered general anesthesia.

Most often, a tumor is removed by cutting a tissue and curing it. This allows you to reduce the size of the seam and prevent infection.

Cryocoagulation

Cryocoagulation is a more modern method of treatment. It is carried out in the formation of tumors in the soft tissues and skeleton. This technique was first tried in Israel, after which it became widespread throughout the world. Cryocoagulation provides chances for recovery even for patients with bone cancer. Therapy makes it possible to remove the formation without consequences for the tissue and the skeleton.

Cryotherapy is effective in the presence of tumors in the following organs:

Cryotherapy refers to the effect on the tumor of extremely low temperatures. For this, liquid nitrogen was previously used, leading to the destruction of damaged tissues and the death of mutated cells. Now scientists from Israel have developed an innovative tool to remove argon or helium, which have less effect on the body than nitrogen.

The tool creates extremely low temperatures - up to -180 degrees. It allows you to control the area of ​​impact and freeze only damaged cells without affecting healthy organs. The advantages of cryotherapy are obvious:

Minimal effect on the body

Easy preparation for surgery,

Minimal damage to tissues and bones.

Cryotherapy successfully replaces radiation and chemotherapy, which have an adverse effect on humans. After the operation, there are no side effects - nausea, fatigue, hair loss.

Replacement Therapy

Many benign growths result from the failure of the hormonal system. If the tumor is small and has no tendency to develop, replacement therapy is prescribed to the patient. In this case, the patient is under the supervision of a specialist and is regularly examined.

Diet for benign tumors

The effectiveness of treatment depends largely on compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle. When diagnosing a tumor, the patient must give up nicotine and alcohol, completely eliminate coffee and strong tea from the diet. Also, experts appointed a diet that will help restore immunity and prevent the development of tumors. To do this, the patient is recommended lean and lean dishes, a large number of vegetables and herbs. Dishes can be baked, boiled in water and steamed. Completely excluded fried, smoked and stewed with fat food.

Prevention of benign tumors

    To prevent the formation of benign tumors, it is necessary to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, eat properly and fully.

    The body will begin an independent struggle with pathological cells with proper rest, regular sleep and the absence of stimuli.

    Prevent benign tumors of the female genital sphere will help regular sexual relations with one partner, keeping organs clean, lack of abortions, timely treatment of hormonal imbalance.

    Prophylactic examinations with specialists will help to diagnose the disease in a timely manner.

    However, self-prescribing treatment can not be! Folk remedies help restore the functionality of the body, regain lost strength and improve immunity. In the fight against tumors, they are ineffective.

    Many patients underestimate benign tumors, neglecting the need to see a doctor. However, only timely treatment can guarantee a full recovery and no negative consequences. It is worth remembering that most malignant tumors are reborn from benign formations that do not pose a threat to life.

    Article author: Evgeny Bykov | Oncologist, surgeon

    Education: He graduated from the residency in the "Russian Scientific Oncological Center named. N. N. Blokhin "and received a diploma in" Oncologist "

    Benign neoplasms

    A benign neoplasm is a pathology that occurs due to disruption of the normal process of cell division and growth.

    Allocate the main features of benign tumors:

    • slow growth The tumor may retain its size for several years. In some cases, tumors can develop into malignant,
    • no pathological effect on the body,
    • absence of metastases. A benign neoplasm is localized at one site, where its slow growth begins. Other organs are not affected.
    • cells of a benign tumor are similar in structure and function to normal cells.

    In most cases, benign neoplasms do not manifest themselves, which complicates their diagnosis. As a rule, such tumors are detected at preventive examinations.

    The main causes of benign tumors

    The cause of the development of benign tumors are DNA mutations caused by the following factors:

    • ultraviolet radiation,
    • ionizing radiation
    • hormonal imbalance,
    • viruses,
    • smoking, substance abuse, drug use,
    • poor nutrition,
    • alcohol abuse
    • fractures, injuries,
    • disorders of the immune system,
    • disturbed mode (work at night, lack of sleep),
    • stresses
    • genetic predisposition.

    Each person has a predisposition to the occurrence of benign neoplasms. Prevent the appearance of a tumor can be, observing a healthy lifestyle. This is especially true of people in whose families there have been cases of cancer.

    Stages of development of benign tumors

    There are three stages of development of benign tumors:

    Initiation Identify the disease at this stage of development is almost impossible. During initiation, a change in the cell's DNA occurs under the influence of certain factors. Two genes are susceptible to mutations. One of the genes is responsible for the multiplication of cells, the second - for their immortality. In the case of mutations in both genes, malignant tumors, if changes occur only in one of two genes - benign neoplasms.

    Promotion At this stage of development, active reproduction of mutated cells is observed. Carcinogenesis promoters are responsible for this process. Stage can not manifest itself and last for several years. Early diagnosis of tumors can prevent the development of cancer.

    Progression. This stage of development is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of mutated tumor cells. There is a deterioration of health, violation of certain functions of the body, the appearance of spots on the skin. At this stage of development, neoplasms are easily diagnosed, even without the use of special medical equipment. By itself, the tumor at a progressive stage of development does not pose a threat to the life of the patient, but leads to compression of neighboring organs.

    At the stage of progression under the influence of certain factors and in the absence of the necessary treatment, tumors can degenerate into malignant neoplasms.

    Types of neoplasms
    Fibroma - A tumor consisting of connective tissue spindle-shaped cells, vessels and fibers. In most cases, the neoplasm develops in the genitals of women. It manifests painful menstruation, pain during intercourse, infertility, menstrual irregularities. Sometimes the tumor manifests intermenstrual bleeding. They lead to a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood and deterioration of health.

    Lipoma - it is represented by a neoplasm, practically no different from adipose tissue. The tumor has a capsule. In most cases, it is diagnosed in women during menopause. The development of the disease is accompanied by severe pain. Lipoma can reach large sizes and makes patients for a long time to be in a lying or sitting position.

    Chondroma - a neoplasm consisting of cartilage tissue. Has the appearance of bumps. The occurrence of the disease is caused by injuries and tissue damage. Neoplasms are characterized by slow growth. For a long time they may not manifest themselves and develop as single tumors or in the form of multiple tumors.

    Neurofibromatosis (Reclinghausen's disease). The disease is the formation of a large number of fibroids and spots on the skin of a coffee-milky color. Neurofibromatosis affects neural crest cells. As a rule, the development of the disease is characterized by pronounced symptoms.

    Osteoma - is represented by a neoplasm consisting of bone tissue. This is a congenital disease resulting from the pathological development of the skeleton. Neoplasms rarely develop into malignant ones.

    Myoma - encapsulated tumors, the process of development of which takes place in the muscle tissue. Myomas affect the organs of the female reproductive system. Manifest painful and heavy menstrual bleeding, infertility. The disease is hereditary. The causes of the disease are obesity, hormonal disorders, abortions.

    Lymphangioma - it is presented by the benign neoplasm formed from lymphatic vessels. The disease develops in the embryonic period. In most cases, there is a cessation of the development of tumors in early childhood.

    Angioma - A neoplasm developing from blood vessels. The disease is congenital. Manifested by swollen flat dilated vessels. They are clearly visible on the surface of the skin. Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, angiomas can degenerate into malignant neoplasms.

    Glioma - is a neoplasm developing from neuroglial cells. Hemorrhage may be a manifestation of the disease.
    Neuroma - neoplasm formed from the elements of the nervous system. The cause of the disease is nerve damage or amputation. Manifested in the form of redness on the skin and pain in the tumor area. Neuroma - A benign tumor formed in the roots of the spinal cord and on the peripheral nerves. Presented in the form of numerous nodes of various sizes.

    Paraganglioma - is a neoplasm consisting of chromaffin cells. The tumor is congenital. It can be formed in any organs and tissues containing chromaffin cells. The development of the disease is accompanied by increased blood pressure, tachycardia, headaches, shortness of breath. The disease is dangerous due to the possibility of metastases in the body.

    Ganglioneuroma - represented by a dense neoplasm in the abdominal cavity, consisting of nerve fibers. It is characterized by slow development. For a long time may not manifest itself. The process of tumor development begins in the embryonic period. The cause of development may be infections and disorders during the formation of the nervous system of the fetus.

    Papilloma - a neoplasm, having the appearance of papillae or stalks, inside which a blood vessel is located. Papillomas are the main neoplasms among benign incidence cases. Such tumors are easily removed. Papillomas also include warts. They do not require special treatment, and in most cases are safe. The threat to health are only warts, changing their color and bleeding.

    Adenoma - represented by a neoplasm consisting of glands. The tumor follows the shape of the organ in which it is localized. In most cases, manifested in men over 45 years. Accompanied by pain when urinating, early ejaculation, reduced potency, infertility. The disease does not pose a threat to the life of the patient. Tumors impair the quality of life of men and can lead to mental disorders.

    Cyst - is a neoplasm that has no clear boundaries. It is a soft cavity, in most cases filled with liquid. Appears in the abdominal cavity, brain, genitals and bone tissue. Torn tumors can lead to blood poisoning. Tumors are dangerous because of their rapid growth.

    Diagnosis and treatment of benign tumors

    Benign tumors are easily treatable. They can be diagnosed in the early stages of development. For diagnosis use:

    • Ultrasound,
    • cytological method
    • biopsy
    • x-ray methods
    • endoscopic methods

    Methods of treatment depend on the stage of development of tumors in the patient, their type and the general health of the patient. The treatment is carried out with the help of:

    • surgical method
    • cryocoagulation
    • replacement therapy.

    The main treatment for benign neoplasms is surgery. After removal of tumors, relapses are not observed. In rare cases, the growth of mutated cells may require repeated surgery. The tumor is removed using special surgical instruments or a laser.

    One of the most modern methods of treatment of benign tumors is cryocoagulation. It is used for tumors in the soft and bone tissues.

    Cryocoagulation implies an effect on neoplasms of low temperatures. For these purposes, use liquid nitrogen, helium or argon. After such treatment, there are no side effects in the form of nausea and vomiting, characteristic of radiation and chemotherapy.

    Replacement therapy is prescribed in the case of benign tumors of small size, without a tendency to develop against the background of hormonal disturbances.

    Malignant neoplasms

    Malignant neoplasms are pathologies characterized by the presence of uncontrolled dividing cells. They are capable of invasion of nearby tissues and metastasis to distant organs. The disease is caused by impaired differentiation and cell proliferation under the influence of genetic disorders in the body.

    Malignant transformations are caused by mutations, as a result of which cells begin to divide indefinitely and lose their ability to apoptosis. In cases where the immune system does not recognize such a transformation, the tumor begins to grow and form metastases. Metastases can affect any and all organs and systems of the body.

    Malignant neoplasms can occur in people of different age categories. Untreated, cancer is fatal.

    The main causes of malignant neoplasms

    Malignant neoplasms in the body arise under the influence of the following factors:

    • genetic predisposition
    • chemical carcinogens: these include tobacco smoke components, the presence of arsenic in water, autoaloxins in food products, etc.,
    • physical carcinogens: they include ultraviolet radiation, various types of ionizing radiation, mechanical tissue damage,
    • biological carcinogens: infections caused by certain types of viruses, parasites or bacteria (for example, human papillomavirus).

    The main properties of malignant tumors

    • the rapid growth of cancer cells, leading to damage and squeezing of the surrounding tissues in the patient’s body,
    • ability to penetrate nearby tissues through the formation of local metastases,
    • metastasis to distant organs
    • a pronounced negative effect on the general condition of the body due to the production of toxins,
    • ability to elude immunological control
    • low differentiation of malignant tumor cells,
    • pronounced cellular and tissue atypism,
    • stimulation of the growth of the circulatory system in the tumor, which often leads to hemorrhage into the tissue of a malignant neoplasm.
    Types of malignant tumors
    Carcinoma - A malignant tumor that develops from epithelial cells of various organs.Women are diagnosed with carcinoma of the cervix, breast, intestines and stomach. For men, carcinoma of the prostate, liver, lungs, intestines and esophagus is characteristic. Tumor treatment is possible at an early stage of development.

    Sarcomas - Malignant tumors formed from the connective tissue of various organs. The development of tumors is characterized by extremely rapid growth and frequent relapses. Sarcomas can affect the soft and bone tissues, the central and peripheral nervous system, skin, internal organs, lymphoid tissue.

    Melanoma - is one of the most dangerous malignant tumors in humans. Develops from melanocytes - cells producing melanin. In most cases, the tumor is localized in the skin, in rare cases it manifests itself in the mucous membranes and retina. Melanoma often metastasizes and recurs.

    Leukemia - Malignant neoplasms of the hematopoietic system. Patients develop various types of cytopenia.

    Lymphomas - Malignant neoplasms developing from lymphatic tissue.

    Teratomas - Malignant neoplasms formed from gonocytes. In most cases, localized in the testes, ovaries, brain and sacrococcygeal region in children.

    Glioma - the most common primary brain tumor, characterized by neuroectodermal origin.

    Choriocarcinoma - malignant tumor formed from placental tissue.

    The main methods of diagnosis of malignant tumors:

    • the doctor's consultation,
    • radiography
    • mammography,
    • CT scan,
    • Ultrasound,
    • endoscopic method
    • Magnetic resonance imaging,
    • positron emission tomography,
    • radioisotope diagnosis,
    • cytological examination
    • biopsy,
    • laboratory diagnostics
    • microwave depth radiometry,
    • diagnosis with the use of tumor markers.
    Treatment methods for malignant neoplasms
    • operational,
    • chemotherapy,
    • radiation therapy,
    • hormone therapy
    • immunotherapy,
    • combined methods.

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