Emerging suddenly bleeding after the end of the month after 2 weeks usually cause not only a lot of unpleasant feelings and discomfort, but also very much bother women. Their appearance is impossible to foresee, therefore this phenomenon in the field of gynecology always worries both doctors and patients.. Why is it bleeding when it should not?
Features metrorragy following:
- Bleeding in women are only after the end of the month, or completely unrelated to them,
- Intensity - from abundant secretions to minimal smearing elements.
Spotting after the end of menstruation - This is one of the most common complaints of disorders of the reproductive system, requiring an early visit to the doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
Causes of Metrorrhagia
Most often, when visiting a doctor, the following etiological factors are determined:
- Inflammations or infections of the genital area, when acute or chronic diseases cause a disturbance in the blood supply to the uterus and appendages,
Incorrectly chosen contraceptives,
- Diseases of the surface layers of the uterus, as well as the muscle layer. Often the reason that “bloodied”, is endometriosis.
- Prolonged pathological condition of the cervix area.
- New growths of a different nature - benign tumors and oncological processes of the genital sphere of a woman,
- Placing the intrauterine device in a non-specific position or its individual rejection in certain positions,
- Disorders of the ovaries - pathological and age-related changes in function.
- The results of gynecological operations and abdominal injuries.
- Decrease in thyroid function.
- Nervous overload, emotional outburst, stressful situations
Clinicians categorize bleeding, which is associated with dysfunctions of the appendages, can be of two types. Juvenile, found in girls and women of childbearing age and bleeding during the menstrual period.
More on bleeding at reproductive age.
Allocation of a small amount of blood is not yet uterine bleeding, after a certain time after the end of the month it is often diagnosed in women and girls who do not suffer from these or other pathologies of the sexual sphere.
When bleeding occurs:
The middle of the menstrual cycle is the period of the most active production of hormones, their level is maximum, which leads to some blood secretion on the surface of the endometrium. Women who have menstrual disorders should know that they are short, up to a maximum of three days. Gone blood, the volumes are constant and its appearance in this situation is not associated with pain. In the case when the bleeding increases, there is discomfort, and then pain of a different nature must be requested as soon as possible by qualified medical assistance.
- Opened a little bleeding. Suddenly, her period began. The appearance of a small amount of blood on underwear in a period of two weeks - 15 days after the end of the menstrual cycle at reproductive age in women is often a sign that the female body has performed its main function. The implantation of a fertilized egg into the mucosal surface of the endometrium takes place in two days and is associated with a violation of the integrity of the micro capillaries, which leads to the release of a small amount of blood from the uterus for a day or two. This phenomenon is not considered a pathology, and it is not treatable.
The reason for this phenomenon is quite simple and completely physiological. Usually this type of bleeding is not abundant and not long. But there are plenty of reasons when, against the background of general health, at various periods of the post-menstrual cycle, quite serious bleeding occurs.
Contraception and its effect
Mechanical devices - caps, spirals and their analogues can be one of the reasons that lead to fairly serious blood discharge with clots, it does not stop and can manifest itself in any period after the end of menstruation.
Improper use of such funds leads to the fact that the integrity of the blood vessels is disturbed, bleeds, and in this case it is necessary to visit a doctor.
If it is not possible to replace the contraceptive for any reason, you should get advice on their use.
Quite often, abundant bleeding, clots occur as a result of a woman's endometrial spiral, when discharge begins after the period of wearing, the elements of the spiral traumatize the endometrium.
Bleeding can be observed as a consequence of the use of hormonal contraceptive oral medications.
In some situations, again, there is a need for emergency contraception. The use of the drug "Postinor" leads to significant complications, among which the most frequent are painful bleeding.
Bleeding between menstruation is characteristic during menopause. The age category in the segment of fifty years is subject to hormonal imbalance and the most varied reorganizations of physiological functions. Against the background of a significant extinction of the activity of the ovaries, myoma appears and develops - a benign tumor, leading to severe and painful bleeding.
With the development of endometriosis, chronic endometritis, endometrial polyps, an overgrowth of the layers of the mucous and muscles of the uterus is observed, which leads to abundant sudden bleeding with a large number of blood clots.
- Oncological processes of the sexual sphere lead to a general deterioration of health, weakness, and decrease in vitality. Women, when they come to the doctor, complain of constant severe pain in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region, swelling of the legs and sudden disorders of the digestive system.
- A disease of the thyroid gland with a significant decrease in its activity leads to frequent and abundant secretions. In addition to bleeding, a woman experiences apathy, fatigue, loss of interest in life. Treatment in this case should be complex - at the gynecologist and endocrinologist at the same time.
- Hemorrhages from the urethra are distinguished by insignificant secretions, the blood is of a brighter color and a more liquid consistency; it paints urine in a reddish or brown color. The appearance of blood in the urine indicates a pathological condition of the urinary system. The causes of this phenomenon are inflammatory diseases of the urethra - urethritis, the presence of kidney stones, the development of glomerulonephritis.
Violation of the movement of a fertilized egg along physiological paths, when the lack of the possibility of hitting it in the abdominal cavity leads to the fact that it is attached in various places. Most often attached outside the uterus, the embryo begins to grow and develop. This process continues until the period when the growing embryo breaks the fallopian tube or ovary, where it is mainly attached.
Such a rupture leads to large-scale bleeding, accompanied by dagger pain and loss of consciousness.
Ectopic pregnancy frequency is as follows.
Causes of uterine bleeding
Most often, pathology occurs against the background of ovarian dysfunction. Spotting may begin before menstruation and persist after it ends. Such bleeding is practically painless with varying degrees of intensity.
Causes of prolonged menstruation:
- pregnancy complications,
- hormonal imbalance
- recently underwent gynecological surgery,
- improperly installed intrauterine device,
- hormone therapy
- hormonal contraceptives,
- inflammatory, infectious diseases of the genital organs,
- ectopic pregnancy,
- oncologic neoplasms,
- emergency contraception by Postinor, Ginepristone.
Inflammatory and infectious diseases lead to compaction of the ovarian capsule, and the sensitivity of the tissues of the organ to gonadotropins - the pituitary hormones - decreases.
Extragenital causes of bleeding
Not always prolonged menstruation speaks of dysfunction of the reproductive organs. Extragenital diseases can also manifest similar symptoms and lead to prolonged blood loss. These pathologies include the following:
- Bernard Soulier disease
- Verlgof disease,
- myeloproliferative diseases
- overdose of anticoagulants,
- arterial hypertension,
- cirrhosis of the liver.
Bernard-Soulier disease, angiohemophilia, myeloproliferative diseases are characterized by a tendency to spontaneous bleeding. Caused by pathology changes in the composition of the blood. Patients often have uterine, nasal, stomach bleeding, which is difficult to stop.
This pathology is caused by a malfunction of the ovaries. At the same time, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, acyclic secretions appear, the months are heavy and last more than 7 days. Usually bleeding develops after a long delay in menstruation and is accompanied by signs of anemia.
The cause of dysfunctional bleeding of the reproductive period are the following conditions:
- chronic fatigue,
- hormonal drugs,
- climate change,
- failure of hormonal regulation of the ovaries.
At the same time, the egg cell does not mature, and there is no ovulation, the level of estrogen rises. The lining of the uterus lining the endometrium grows, which, after rejection, leads to abundant blood loss. The intensity of the hemorrhagic syndrome depends on the state of the vessels and the coagulation system of the body.
Dysfunctional bleeding can stop independently, but they resume again after the next menstrual period, so the pathology requires treatment by a gynecologist.
Juvenile bleeding occurs in girls during adolescence and may occur for 2–3 years after the first menstruation. The cause of the pathology can be inflammatory diseases of the appendages, unhealthy diet, stress, hormonal disorders, thyroid ailments, infections in childhood: chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella.
Prolonged and abundant periods during puberty lead to the development of anemia. In this case, the girl's state of health worsens, blood pressure decreases, weakness and dizziness appear.
During menopause, a hormonal adjustment occurs in a woman’s body, which can also be the cause of long periods. But in some cases, bleeding is a sign of an oncological or inflammatory disease, therefore, if the menstrual cycle is disturbed, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist.
Bleeding during pregnancy and after delivery
Uterine hemorrhages in pregnant women appear with spontaneous abortion or the development of pathological processes. In later periods, hemorrhagic syndrome may be caused by placental abruption, scarring, or other damage to the uterine wall.
Bleeding during childbirth occurs with mechanical trauma to the vagina, premature detachment of the placenta, its incorrect presentation, delayed release of the placenta. After childbirth, the tone of the uterus decreases, blood stagnation occurs, inflammation may develop, blood loss lasts a long period, the discharge of dark color with clots.
Benign and Malignant Tumors
In the early stages, cancer tumors have no clinical manifestations. As the tumor progresses and grows, the first symptoms appear. One of them is uterine bleeding, which occurs during the intermenstrual period, before the onset of menstruation, or persists after the end of critical days.
The nature of blood loss can be scant or, conversely, the intensity and volume of discharge increases significantly. The secret of scarlet or dark brown color, there are aching or sharp pain in the groin area.
The proliferation of a benign tumor causes pressure on the surrounding organs, which leads to pain syndrome, difficulty urinating and emptying the intestines. At the same time, the neoplasm does not germinate into the surrounding tissues, vessels, and after its removal, the woman recovers.
Benign tumors include:
The intensity of postmenstrual bleeding depends on the stage of the disease. After menopause, uterine discharge is a sign of a serious disease of the genital area, and may be one of the main symptoms of cancer. Fibroma often degenerates into fibromyoma and becomes malignant.
Cancerous tumors grow much faster than benign tumors, penetrate into adjacent organs, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. The disease most often affects women older than 40 years. There are tumors of the uterus, ovaries, cervix.
When cancer neoplasms appear dark brown with a sharp unpleasant odor. At first they are scanty, smearing, but gradually the intensity of bleeding increases. In the secret may appear mucus, pus. This indicates the disintegration of the tumor. The menstrual cycle is disturbed, its duration increases, or discharge between the regs appears.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases
Severe hemorrhagic syndrome may occur against the background of acute inflammatory disease of the appendages, andexitis. The cause of the disease is a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs - lesions of Escherichia coli, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, streptococci.
Andexitis causes menstrual disorders, decreases the interval between menstruation, discharge becomes more abundant, with clots, persists for more than 7 days. In this case, there is a pronounced pain syndrome that spreads to the lower back. The body temperature rises to 39 °, the general well-being of the woman is deteriorating, the discharge may acquire purulent inclusions with an unpleasant odor.
In some cases, andexitis leads to a decrease in the amount of bleeding, secretion smearing, brown. Menstruation lasts 2–3 days.
Inflammatory diseases also include:
Pathologies can occur in acute or chronic form. Launched stages lead to a protracted course of the disease, ectopic pregnancies, female infertility, oncopathology.
Signs of uterine bleeding
Dysfunctional bleeding can be suspected by the following signs:
- menstruation lasts more than 7 days,
- clotted discharge
- personal hygiene products are soaked for 1 hour,
- intense blood loss lasts more than 2 hours,
- lowering blood pressure
- appearance of weakness, fatigue,
- mild pain syndrome.
The blood can be of different colors: from bright scarlet to dark brown. It is difficult for a woman to go about her daily activities, her discharge is increased after physical exertion. In the juvenile period, a characteristic symptom of bleeding is a short gap between the regulations - less than 21 days.
Cyclic bleeding most often occurs with uterine myoma, adenomyosis and blood diseases. If there is a delay in critical days, the pathology is caused by ovarian dysfunction. If you experience these symptoms, you should immediately visit a doctor or call emergency medical care.
First of all, you need to go to an appointment with a gynecologist. However, if an acute condition occurs at night, and the woman does not know how to stop the bleeding, it is recommended to follow these rules:
- the patient needs to take a horizontal position,
- raise your legs so that they are above the level of the heart,
- apply a cold heating pad to the stomach,
- need to drink a lot
- It is useful to take a hemostatic drug.
From medications you can drink Dikasol, Ditsinon or Ascorbic acid. Before stopping bleeding with drugs, it is advisable to first consult a doctor. Tablets have side effects and can harm pregnant women. It is necessary to drink herbal tea and clean non-carbonated water. This will prevent dehydration and add energy.
A cold water bottle helps to narrow the blood vessels and helps to stop the bleeding. To prevent hypothermia, the heating pad is wrapped in cotton fabric and applied several times for 10 minutes with a five-minute break.
From folk remedies effective teas with medicinal plants. Herbs with heavy monthly brewed with boiling water and insist for 1 hour. Yarrow, stinging nettle, shepherd's purse, water pepper, and horsetail have useful properties.
In a medical institution, hormonal preparations are prescribed, surgical curettage of the uterus, laser treatment or cryodestruction is performed.
If you experience symptoms of uterine bleeding, you need to visit the gynecologist, be examined and the necessary treatment. Regular check-ups reduce the risk of complications and help identify diseases at an early stage.