Ovarian cysts can appear for a variety of reasons. Most often, its formation is provoked by an egg that has not been erupted before ovulation. Such tumors often cause discomfort to patients, interfere with pregnancy and can affect menstruation. Pain and other symptoms increase at the beginning of a new cycle. The cyst before menstruation in some cases may resolve and come out along with other secretions. However, large seals require medical treatment or surgical removal.
The effect of cysts on menstruation
Ovarian cysts and delayed menstruation are directly related. The change in the nature of the monthly can occur in two directions. The beginning of a new cycle is postponed, and after a delay (which sometimes reaches 1 month), the discharge lasts longer. Another option is possible - scant menstruation. This occurs at a reduced level of female hormones.
Maybe a monthly delay due to cysts?
Delayed menstruation and ovarian cyst are related, since most often the tumors have follicular origin. A benign tumor appears if the egg has not left the follicle in time. In this case, ovulation does not occur, because the start time of the new cycle is shifted. The delay period is from 5 days to a month.
If the follicular formation did not resolve itself, but increased in size, during menstruation, the following symptoms are noted:
- heavy discharge with a cyst of this type,
- duration of menstruation (longer than usual),
- painful sensations intensify
- increased gas formation and a feeling of bloating.
In some cases, the selection, by contrast, are scarce. This happens with concomitant hormonal imbalance and a decrease in the level of female hormones. Listen to your feelings, because in some cases the same signs can warn about ectopic pregnancy. With her, the fertilized egg does not descend into the uterus, but remains in the tube.
Another type of cyst during menstruation is endometrioid. It is formed if mucosal cells get into the fallopian tubes, ovaries. In this case, the woman faces some symptoms:
- before menstruation and after it there are spotting dark color,
- menses become painful, plentiful and long
- state of health worsens, temperature rises,
- nausea or vomiting occurs,
- pain and scanty discharge during intercourse.
Cyst of the yellow body also causes a delay in menstruation. It appears after ovulation and can self-dissolve.
How to cause menstruation with ovarian cyst?
When the menstrual cycle does not start due to a benign tumor, the attending physician can select a drug to normalize the hormonal levels. There are popular methods of treatment, but their use must be coordinated with a specialist. To induce menstruation, use one of the following means:
- Duphaston or Utrozhestan. These are hormonal drugs that increase the level of female hormones necessary for the maturation of the egg. For a short period, the periods begin,
- Dysmenorm is a homeopathic remedy that contains natural ingredients. To normalize the cycle it is required to take it regularly and long enough. After taking a course, menstruation becomes permanent, painful symptoms disappear,
- vitamins C and E. They help to strengthen the production of hormones necessary for the proper functioning of the reproductive system,
- decoction of parsley seeds or nettle leaves contains the necessary vitamins and minerals, accelerates the process of maturation of eggs,
- oral contraceptives stabilize the work of the internal genital organs.
How does an ovarian cyst come during menstruation?
Follicular formation may spontaneously burst and exit during menstruation. Spontaneous resorption is characteristic of those cases when hormonal preparations were used. To determine whether the thickening has dissolved, watch the nature of the discharge. If you notice large clots, it will be a sign of resorption of the capsule with liquid contents.
Residues may come out at the next menstruation or on another day of the cycle. If this occurs during menstruation, the pain will be stronger than ever. After this, there is a short-term decrease in secretions and a change in their color to a lighter one.
Do I need to get rid of the cyst or it will resolve itself?
In most cases, the neoplasm must be disposed of. The more it grows in size, the more unpleasant symptoms a woman experiences. A tumor of 6 - 7 cm pushes heavily on the internal organs, provokes pain, which is aggravated by any movements and even when walking.
Follicular thickening often dissolves spontaneously, therefore, requires observation. This also applies to the sealing of the corpus luteum. Other species require mandatory medical treatment or removal.
Laparoscopy of an ovarian cyst is used as the main surgical method. It involves making a small incision through which the capsule is removed along with the contents. The recovery period is short, the patient quickly returns to normal life.
Doctors prescribe hormonal treatment, if the seal does not exceed 5 - 6 cm. The decision on the operation is taken based on the individual characteristics of the particular patient.
Neoplasm of the internal genital organs can not be left without attention. Delayed menstruation and ovarian cyst are closely related. To restore the cycle, you need to get rid of a benign tumor. Some of its varieties dissolve on their own, for the treatment of others use hormonal therapy or prescribe an operation to remove the contents.
What ovarian cysts affect hormones
Not all diseases of the appendages can affect the condition of a woman. The nature of the patient's monthly discharge varies with the appearance of the following formations:
- Follicular cysts. Formed from follicles that have not been folded in due time. Persist for 3 months, after which it usually spontaneously resolves. Can grow up to 10-12 cm or more. More often one-sided and single-chamber. Do not degenerate into a malignant tumor
- Luteal cysts. Formed from the corpus luteum. There are 2-3 months. Prone to self-regression. Grow slowly, usually stopping at a size of 5-8 cm in diameter. Malignancy is not seen. Quite often complicated by torsion of the legs and rupture of the capsule,
- Endometrioid cysts. Are a special case of external endometriosis. Grow slowly, there are many years. Prevent ovulation and pregnancy. May disappear when carrying a fetus and in menopause.
Serous, paraovarial and dermoid cysts do not affect the menstrual cycle and remain asymptomatic for a long time. Such formations make themselves felt only when they are large and dysfunctional of neighboring organs.
The diagnosis of "serous cyst" is almost impossible to find in the outpatient card of the patient of the antenatal clinic. A gynecologist can palpate a certain formation of appendages, and then confirm the presence of pathology by the results of an ultrasound scan. Usually, ultrasound doctors describe a round formation filled with fluid, and define it as a follicular cyst. If after 3-6 months of improvement does not occur, the woman is sent for surgery. After histological examination of the material, it may turn out that a serous mass was hidden under the guise of a follicular cyst, and this is a fairly common situation in gynecological practice.
According to medical statistics, tumor formations are more common on the right ovary. In 60-70% of cases, it is here that follicles mature, and hence the probability of developing pathology is higher. Endometriosis can be simultaneously on the right and left ovary.
Cystic formations are more common on the right ovary.
How does the nature of the month when the pathology of the ovaries
The clinical picture will depend on the type of education.
When follicular cyst are observed:
- Menstruation delay for a period of several days to a month. Monthly may be absent for two consecutive cycles
- Abundant and long periods. Often delayed menstruation goes into uterine bleeding. This symptom is especially common in young girls and adolescents during the formation of the cycle,
- Painful menstruation. In general, they are not characteristic of this type of cyst, but can be observed with large education sizes. A cavity filled with fluid presses against neighboring organs, which leads to the appearance of pain,
- Discomfort during sexual intercourse, while playing sports.
The nature of the monthly changes when the cyst diameter is 6-8 cm or more. Small lesions remain asymptomatic.
A follicular cyst is a hormone-active formation, therefore it causes disruptions of the menstrual cycle.
In the case of luteal cyst:
- The nature of the influence of the tumor on the menstrual cycle is almost the same as that of the follicular formations,
- There is prolonged menstruation, bleeding within a few days after the end of menstruation. This is due to the uneven rejection of the mucous layer of the uterus on the background of hormonal failure.
Since cysts of the corpus luteum rarely reach large sizes, they may go unnoticed by a woman. Pathology is detected by chance with a planned ultrasound.
Endometrial cyst behaves as follows:
- Rarely causes delayed menstruation. With endometriosis, they usually arrive on time,
- Menstruation becomes long. There is a spotting for bloody discharge a few days before and some time after menstruation,
- There are nagging pains in the lower abdomen. Pain is the hallmark symptom of endometriosis. It occurs before menstruation and persists until the end of the discharge.
Monthly with ovarian pathology occur in different ways, but almost always their character is outside the normal range. The degree of deviation may be different, depending on the size of the formation, as well as comorbidities. If the cyst is combined with myoma or endometrial hyperplasia, the clinical picture changes.
The cyst can be combined with the presence of endometrial foci and be accompanied by the symptoms shown in the picture.
- Long-term delay of the month for functional cysts is not typical. If menstruation does not begin more than two months, then you need to look for another cause of the problem.,
- With the pathology of the ovaries there may be intermenstrual bloody discharge. They are often scanty, brown or blood, sometimes in the form of a slight daub. The woman believes that her period is twice a month, which leads to confusion and the wrong date for the last menstrual period. In fact, in the middle of the cycle there is blood because of a cyst that has hormonal activity and stimulates the rejection of the endometrium,
- Permanent bleeding in functional formations almost never occur. If the menstruation does not stop in time, it is necessary to pass an additional examination by a gynecologist,
- Blood clots with heavy periods can indicate an endometriotic cyst. Often this pathology is combined with adenomyosis (endometriosis of the uterus), which leaves its mark on the symptoms of the disease.
A 24-year-old woman came to see a doctor complaining of bleeding in the middle of a cycle. The patient for 4 years takes Janine for the purpose of contraception. The cycle on the preparation is regular, previously acyclic secretions were not observed. Such a symptom occurs during the period of adaptation to the drug, however, it lasts no more than 3-6 months and does not occur after years with constant use of the contraceptive.
During the ultrasound, the patient revealed a thin-walled formation of appendages. No other pathology was found. It has been suggested that hormonally active formation provokes rejection of the endometrium and leads to the appearance of minor bleeding. The woman was asked to stop taking the drug and observe the condition of the cyst. When the control ultrasound after 3 months, the tumor in size did not decrease (on the contrary, there was a tendency to its growth). A laparoscopic ablation was performed. After surgery, bleeding stopped, the menstrual cycle was restored.
This is how an endometrioid ovarian cyst looks on ultrasound and laparoscopic surgery.
What happens to an ovarian cyst during menstruation
Gynecologists do not accidentally send their patients to the control ultrasound after the menstruation. The follicular and luteal formations of the ovary have one unique ability - they dissolve after the completion of the cycle. The cyst is reduced in size and dissolves in the surrounding tissues. The remains of the capsule can go along with menstruation (but not the whole cyst itself). Only functional entities behave this way. Dermoids and other congenital tumors are not capable of spontaneous regression.
Can a woman notice how a cyst disappears during menstruation? No, this process occurs unnoticed and is not accompanied by any unpleasant sensations. According to reviews, some women note the appearance of a pulling pain in the lower abdomen on the affected side. Control ultrasound shows that the cyst is gone, however, it is not possible to unambiguously associate the pain during menstruation with resorption of the formation. Painful menstruation can be with progressive pathology.
In the presence of an ovarian cyst, a dynamic ultrasound control of the formation is required throughout the cycle.