Hygiene

The concept of the cycle of monthly - norms and deviations

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How many days normally does the menstruation cycle of a healthy woman of reproductive age last? On average, it lasts 28 days, but its duration is considered acceptable within 21-35 days. Note that in the adolescent and pre-menopausal periods, menstruation usually occurs irregularly and have a different duration.

You should know that the normal cycle of menstruation is directly dependent on the physiological processes occurring in the woman's body. In the presence of serious gynecological diseases and hormonal disorders, he can "stray". An emergency contraceptive method can also lead to a change in the duration of the monthly cycle.

Some women ask, “Is it normal if the menstrual cycle lasts 21 days?”. Yes, provided that it is regular and is not accompanied by the appearance of suspicious symptoms. If menstruation does not come on time and cause severe pain or heavy bleeding - it makes sense to go for a consultation with a gynecologist.

Normally, the monthly cycle consists of three phases, each of which lasts a different number of days. They successively replace each other, and the onset of each of them is regulated by various hormones. It is the duration of these phases that determines how many days the normal menstruation cycle of a particular woman will last.

  • Follicular It starts on the first day of menstruation and can last from 7 to 22 days. During the follicular phase, egg maturation occurs in the ovarian follicle. This phase ends with ovulation.
  • Ovulatory It is characterized by the release of the egg from the ruptured follicle and its advancement towards the fallopian tube. At this time, the woman becomes pregnant.
  • Luteal. Takes the entire time interval between ovulation and the onset of menstrual bleeding. During this phase, the corpus luteum develops and the endometrium of the uterus is prepared for implantation of a fertilized egg. If the woman is not pregnant, the corpus luteum undergoes reverse development, and the endometrium is rejected and causes menstrual bleeding.

Note that in addition to these phases, there are also phases of the endometrial cycle. They characterize the typical changes in the mucous membrane of the uterus, which normally occur during the menstrual cycle in women. Knowledge of these processes will help to understand where menstrual bleeding comes from. Let's look at these phases in more detail.

Phases of the endometrial cycle:

  • Menstrual. Lasts from 3 to 7 days. Starts due to lower levels of estrogen and progesterone in the woman’s body. The reason for this is the reverse development of the corpus luteum in the ovary due to non-occurrence of fertilization. During the menstrual phase, ischemia and rejection of the endometrium occur, which is accompanied by heavy bleeding. In the people it is called the monthly phenomena.
  • Proliferative. Normally, this part of the cycle of menstruation in women lasts from 6-7 to 14 day of the cycle. At this time, the follicle actively grows in the ovary, and the level of estrogen gradually increases in the body. Under the influence of these factors, the endometrium thickens by a factor of 2-3. At the same time, an increase in the glands occurs and elongation of the spiral arteries of the uterus begins.
  • Secretory. It starts at 14-16 and ends on the 28th day of the cycle. At this time, under the influence of progesterone is an active growth of glandular epithelium.

The spiral arteries continue to grow, become tortuous and reach the surface layer of the endometrium. Note that it is from these vessels that the blood flows when the inner lining of the uterus is rejected. In the menstrual phase, the spiral arteries spasm, which leads to ischemia and rejection of the endometrium.

What cycle of menstruation is considered normal? Of course, the one in which each of these phases naturally replaces each other. This is possible only with the normal synthesis of all female hormones.

The menstrual cycle is regulated by several female hormones. These include estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Their synthesis directly depends on the proper functioning of the pituitary, hypothalamus and ovaries.

Levels of regulation of the menstrual cycle:

Hypothalamus. This is a small part of the diencephalon in which GnRH is synthesized. These substances have a stimulating effect on the pituitary gland and thereby increase the secretion of LH and FSH. It is on these hormones that the normal maturation of the egg cell and the subsequent rupture of the follicle depend.

Pituitary. Produces follicle-stimulating hormone responsible for the normal development of the egg in the follicular phase. During ovulation, the pituitary gland releases a large amount of luteinizing hormone into a woman’s body, which triggers the rupture of the follicle and the release of the egg.

Ovaries and corpus luteum. Normally, the ovaries produce a number of hormones (estrogens, progestogens, androgens), which are responsible for the development of secondary female sexual characteristics and reproductive health. Regarding the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the corpus luteum is much more involved in it. This structure is formed at the site of a ruptured follicle and actively produces progesterone, a pregnancy hormone.

Signs of a normal cycle:

  • the onset of menstruation at the age of 12-14 years (although the age of 9-15 years is considered a valid term for the onset of menarche),
  • the duration of the entire cycle within 28 ± 7, menstrual bleeding - 4 ± 2 days,
  • no pain, excessive discharge, too large blood clots or an unpleasant odor during menstruation,
  • blood loss during the entire menstruation in a volume of not more than 20-60 ml,
  • a slight increase in basal temperature (in the rectum) in the middle of the cycle when ovulation occurs,
  • the onset of menopause, that is, the complete cessation of the menstrual cycle at the age of 47-50 years.

Pregnancy

The opportunity to conceive is available only during ovulation, when the egg has already left the ovary, but has not yet had time to die. A woman can become pregnant only during this period, which lasts about three days.

Note that in healthy women, the duration of individual phases of the cycle may vary slightly. Therefore, ovulation can occur a little earlier or a little later than the allotted time.

Because of this, pregnancy can theoretically come not only during ovulation, but also 3-4 days before it and 1-2 days after. If a woman wants to avoid pregnancy - these days it is better for her to protect herself or to completely abandon intimate intimacy.

What is the menstruation cycle

One cycle is the time interval between the first days of two consecutive menses. The cycle length is measured in calendar days, and its first day falls on the beginning of the month.

Its duration

There is no consensus among specialists regarding what the menstruation cycle should be for women, but there are certain norms for the monthly cycle, within which the main indicators of this process can vary:

  • the cycle must be stable, the tolerance from the standard for the duration of the cycle does not exceed 2-3 days. The average duration of the menstrual cycle should be 21-35 days. In some women, the period between two periods may be less than 21 days or more than 35 days due to the individual characteristics of the organism. If this duration is stable and there are no signs of pathologies, then such a phenomenon is recognized as a morphofunctional feature for this fair sex,
  • during the regulation the volume of bleeding normally should not exceed 80 ml. It is important that due to the content in the blood anticoagulant (plasmin enzyme), it does not fold,
  • bleeding during menstruation go 3-7 days,
  • during menstruation should not be severe pain, maximum light discomfort.

Tolerances

The length of the period, as well as all its other characteristics, depends on many factors, including the woman’s lifestyle, diet, stress, medication, oral contraception, etc. For various reasons, the cycle can be shortened and lengthened. Of the physiological reasons for which menstrual failure may occur, the most basic are age-related changes in a woman’s body:

  • in adolescence at adolescence after the arrival of the first menstrual period for 1-2 years, irregularities of the cycle are allowed, menstruation may come with delays of up to 3 months, the discharge may be scanty or too abundant,
  • the first sexual intercourse can provoke a change in the cyclical nature of menstruation, such failures can be caused by the stressiness of the situation, usually a deviation from the norm will not exceed 1-2 days,
  • for women over 45 years who enter a pre-menopausal period, the cycle instability is also the norm, regulae can disappear for up to six months, go less intensively or develop into uterine bleeding,
  • during pregnancy, menstruation in normal conditions should be absent altogether; after birth, it returns to normal depending on the type of feeding of the baby. When feeding the child with artificial mixtures, the monthly will come to the woman as soon as possible. During lactation, the actively produced hormone prolactin suppresses the menstrual function of the ovaries, so the cycle normalizes when the level of this hormone decreases or even when feeding is completely stopped.

What phases exist

All processes in the female reproductive system are directly dependent on the amount of female sex hormones produced in the body. Depending on which hormone prevails in a particular period, the menstrual cycle is divided into several phases.

Consider each of them in more detail:

  • follicular. Its beginning coincides with the arrival of menstruation, and the duration varies from 7 to 22 days. First, the uterus cavity is cleaned of detached endometrium, which was not useful in the previous cycle, due to the absence of conception. When menstruation comes to an end, the pituitary gland begins to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which provokes the development of several follicles in the ovary. The most developed follicle, the diameter of which can reach 2 cm, is called dominant. When it forms, the growth of the remaining follicles stops. At this time, the body is heavily secreted by estrogen, which ensures the normal growth of the new inner layer in the uterus. It depends on how long the body takes to mature the follicle, and in many respects depends on whether the whole cycle will be long or short,
  • ovulation. When an egg cell matures for 7–22 days of the follicular phase in the follicle or graphalus vesicle, it bursts. This usually happens 10-14 days. During ovulation, the pituitary gland begins actively producing lutein. It is a hormone that promotes the formation of the corpus luteum in the region of a ruptured follicle. The main function of the corpus luteum is progesterone secretion, which suppresses the development of new follicles. This process (ovulation and progesterone secretion) lasts from 16 to 48 hours. This period is the most favorable for conception,
  • luteal phase or yellow body phase. It is a temporary gland that produces progesterone for about 12 days. If the egg is fertilized, then the work of the corpus luteum continues until it forms a placenta. If conception does not occur, the yellow body dies off, and menstruation occurs. This phase usually lasts 13-14 days, its duration is almost always constant.

Cycle Regulation Levels

The regulation of the menstrual cycle has a clear hierarchy, in accordance with which the brain is at the highest level, from whose cortex the impulse is fed to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and they in turn give commands to the ovaries, the whole process ends in the endometrium.

Consider the role of each of the levels in more detail:

  1. The cerebral cortex occupies the highest level of cycle management. It is at this level that menstrual failures of a psycho-emotional nature occur, which can be triggered by stress, the fear of pregnancy, the setting for a delay to some important date. Such psychological “feet” provoke the supply of commands from the brain to the lowest level to the hypothalamus to suspend the production of hormones. Traumatic brain injury, which affects the functioning of the cerebral cortex, can also trigger menstrual failure.
  2. Hypothalamus. The pituitary zone of a given region, which is responsible for neuroendocrine activity, participates in the regulation of menstruation. The hypothalamus is responsible for the production of FSH and LH.
  3. Pituitary. This is a gland that produces growth hormones that are necessary for the maturation of the female germ cell and the proper development of the embryo. In the regulation of the monthly participates its front dale.
  4. Ovaries At this level of regulation, the maturation and rupture of the follicle, the exit of the female germ cell into the fallopian tube, the production of the corpus luteum and steroids occur.
  5. Internal and external genital organs and mammary glands. This is the lowest level of regulation. Everything is simple here, if conception has occurred, then the necessary “atmosphere” is provided in these organs for the maintenance and development of the fetus, if the egg does not fertilize, the endometrium is rejected and removed from the uterus, and the cycle begins anew.

In hormonal regulation, all processes also have a clear step hierarchy. In the follicular phase, the pituitary produces FSH, and they in turn stimulate the production of estradiol in the ovaries, which causes swelling and thickening of the internal mucous layer in the uterus. When estradiol reaches a certain level, the follicle bursts, and the egg leaves the ovary, and in its place forms a yellow body, which produces progesterone. If conception does not occur, the corpus luteum goes into the opposite phase of development, and the level of the pregnancy hormone (progesterone) decreases. The endometrium in this case also degrades, it is rejected and removed from the uterus. After this, the hormone production process is restarted.

Causes of violations

We list the main causes of violation of the cyclical nature of the monthly processes in the female body:

  • diseases of the genital and endocrine systems. To know about the occurrence of pathology, it is necessary to keep a monthly calendar,
  • hormonal imbalance caused by age-related changes in the level of female sex hormones (puberty and menopause),
  • physiological processes provoked by pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding,
  • abortions, surgical interventions,
  • stress, medication, a sharp set or weight loss.

With age, the likelihood of hormonal disorders from any of these factors increases significantly due to the aging of the body.

What violations are

We list the main types of menstrual disorders:

  • oligomenorrhea - periods that are too short in duration, no more than 2 days,
  • opsomenorrhea - a cycle that is too long, in some cases up to 8 weeks pass between two successive menstruation,
  • amenorrhea is a pathology in which the cycle has increased by more than six months or menstruation is completely absent,
  • hypomenorrhea - scanty menstrual flow,
  • uterine bleeding,
  • dysmenorrhea or algomenorrhea are too painful periods.

The cycle can be extended if the follicle matures for a long time and there is no ovulation. In this situation, the level of progesterone does not rise, since there is no corpus luteum, and over time, the constantly growing endometrium begins to collapse mechanically, and the period comes with a significant delay. Also lengthening may occur due to the too long life of the yellow body, and shortening due to its premature extinction. The cycle time is reduced if the follicle matures too quickly, and ovulation begins early.

Recovery methods

The menstruation cycle is a clear sequence of processes in the body, and if it is violated, only a doctor can determine the cause and prescribe a treatment that can normalize menstruation. If the failure had a single character, there is no need to panic, but in the case when, in addition to it, there are pathological symptoms, you should immediately seek medical help. To establish a cycle with the help of a specialist is necessary in the presence of the following symptoms:

  • chest hurts and swells,
  • menstruation come irregularly
  • dizzy and pale skin
  • menstrual flow goes more than 7 days,
  • there is a feeling of itching in the vagina,
  • if the regula increase or, conversely, come rarely,
  • general feeling of weakness
  • there is intermenstrual daub,
  • severe pain in the lower abdomen and in the genital area during regulation and between them,
  • heavy monthly discharge,
  • body temperature increases during menstruation.

In order to find out the cause of the imbalance and regulate the cycle, the doctor carries out a number of diagnostic measures, the results of which prescribe the appropriate treatment.

В некоторых случаях для нормализации месячных женщине достаточно будет просто отдохнуть или начать правильно питаться, ряд патологий может потребовать медикаментозной, в том числе гормональной терапии, а более серьезные ситуации могут потребовать немедленного оперативного вмешательства. The method of treatment is chosen individually, depending on the causes of the imbalance, and the patient’s general health.

Calculation methods

There are several reasons why a woman needs to calculate the duration of a cycle:

  • to prepare for the arrival of regulations and take measures to alleviate the condition,
  • to know which days of the cycle to increase contraceptive measures to prevent unwanted pregnancy,
  • to know when the fertile days come,
  • to determine the moment of conception and calculate when the baby’s birthday will be,
  • for planning a visit to a gynecologist or a mammologist.

There are women, but more often young girls who do not know how to count the length of the cycle. Actually it is very simple. Its length is the number of days that pass from the first day of the current month to the first day of the next.

If menstruation began on April 26, and the beginning of the previous one was on April 2, the cycle duration is calculated according to the scheme 26-2 + 1 = 25 days (the unit is added to not take into account the first day of the new cycle in the calculations).

If the woman in this example has a cycle length of +/- 1-2 days, this is normal, but if there are longer discrepancies with the nominal value, it is mandatory to consult a doctor.

Understanding the concepts

First of all, I want to decide on the concepts themselves in order to fully understand what is being said. So, the monthly (or more correctly - menstrual) cycle is a special physiological process, which is characteristic exclusively for the female body (sexually mature personality). It has a regular nature, mainly affects the reproductive system. All these processes are controlled by hormones that make the ovaries, as well as the brain.

When does a woman begin to form a monthly cycle? Norm - the time of puberty girls. It takes an average of 11-14 years. Disappears menstrual cycle in women with the onset of menopause (most often it comes at 45-55 years of age). This is a normal physiological process, as a result of which a woman is no longer able to conceive and bear a baby. The external manifestation of the menstrual cycle are bleeding, or menstruation.

First phase: menstruation

The normal cycle of menstruation begins with the first phase, which is calculated from the first day of the bleeding. This is the so-called monthly. At this time, the exit occurs along with the blood of the previously rejected endometrium. This process can still be called a preparation for receiving a new egg. As for the duration, this phase has only 3 to 6 days. It ends before the end of bleeding from women. What else is important to say, studying the cycle of menstruation? How much blood should normally be allocated to a girl? Not more than 80 ml for the entire period of menstruation. If a woman replaces pads or tampons more than 10 times a day - this is an occasion to consult a doctor. You should also ask for help if bleeding goes for a week or more.

Possible problems

What problems can arise in this phase?

  1. Amenorrhea (prefix "a" means no). This is a complete lack of bleeding. However, this diagnosis can only be made if a similar phenomenon has been observed for half a year.
  2. Algomenorrhea (prefix "algo" means pain). This is painful menstruation when a woman feels very bad. At this time, the working capacity of women is sharply reduced.
  3. Menorrhagia. This is too abundant bloody discharge. This diagnosis can be made if the woman’s menstruation lasts more than 7 days or the amount of discharge is more than 80 ml.

Phase Three: Ovulation

This is the middle of the monthly cycle. At this moment there is a restructuring of hormones in the female body. The level of FSH, i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone, is significantly reduced, but LH, ie, luteinizing hormone, is immediately released. Period time frame: three days. What happens at this time with the female body?

  1. LH makes the cervix very susceptible to semen.
  2. Egg maturation ends.
  3. The ovule is released from the follicle, after which it enters the fallopian tubes and awaits conception (about two days).

Cycle and conception

Every lady should know her correct monthly cycle. After all, it is very important in that situation if you want to prepare for the conception of a baby or, on the contrary, avoid unwanted pregnancy. After all, as everyone knows, there are favorable and dangerous days of the female cycle. In more detail about this:

  1. The maximum probability of conception is a couple of days before ovulation or at the time of the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
  2. It is worth remembering that male sperm live up to seven days in the female way, so fertilization is possible even if unprotected sexual intercourse occurred a week before ovulation.
  3. Favorable days for those who still do not want to have children: a couple of days after ovulation. The egg cell has already died at this time, fertilization will not occur.

However, it should be said that it is very difficult to accurately predict ovulation. After all, the female body is not an ideal machine. If you do not want to get pregnant, it is best not to rely on your calculations, but to additionally be protected by modern means, say, condoms.

Diagnostics

If a lady started her period in the middle of a cycle or any other problem arose, she must seek medical advice. After all, this may be the cause of quite serious problems with the body. By what indicators will the gynecologist carry out the diagnostics?

  1. Survey (obtaining full information about the possible causes of violations).
  2. Gynecological examination of the patient.
  3. Taking all the smears needed for analysis.
  4. Blood and urine tests.

If these procedures did not give complete answers to questions of interest to the doctor, additional tests may be prescribed to the lady:

  1. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs or abdominal cavity.
  2. Tests for hormones.
  3. MRI - magnetic resonance imaging (identification of pathological changes in the tissues, as well as the search for possible tumors).
  4. Hysteroscopy (examination of the patient's uterus with a special tool).

Only a combination of these methods of examining the patient's condition can provide a complete picture of the causes of her illness, which will lead to a correct diagnosis and proper treatment.

Diseases

Above, it was said a little about what problems may arise with the female menstrual cycle and which against the background of this disease develops. However, this is not a complete list.

  1. Hypomenorrhea. This is a very meager bleeding.
  2. Opsomenorei. Significant shortening of the duration of bleeding in women.
  3. Oligomenorrhea. This is an increase in the honey interval by the lady’s bleeding.

All these problems should cause concern. Every woman should remember that timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease is very important.

Complications

If a woman has lost the cycle (between periods, for example, there are different periods of time) or other problems with women's health arise, you should immediately contact a doctor for a qualified consultation. After all, if time does not diagnose and treat the disease, it can lead to serious complications, which will be extremely difficult to cope with. It is worth remembering that later identifying the pathologies that cause failures of the menstrual cycle, can lead not only to the impossibility of becoming pregnant, but even to the death of a young woman.

Doctor treatment

If the girl still needs to seek medical help, treatment will be prescribed based on the reasons that led to hormonal failure.

  1. If stress is the cause, sedatives will be given to the patient.
  2. If there are problems with bleeding, hemostatic drugs, aminocaproic acid can be attributed to the woman (to eliminate bleeding if menstruation occurs in the middle of the cycle).
  3. In case of heavy bleeding, the lady can infuse donor blood, plasma.
  4. Surgical intervention is possible (including hysterectomy, i.e., uterus removal).
  5. In some cases, the girl may be prescribed antibiotics (if the cause of the failure is an infectious disease).
  6. The most common methods of treatment - the appointment of hormonal drugs to regulate hormonal levels.

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How many days go monthly

The topic of menstruation is very relevant for every girl, because this process is the first indicator of women's health. Regular periods and a normal cycle suggest that there are no gynecological pathologies in the body, and therefore a girl can conceive and give birth to a healthy baby.

In this case, women often have various violations of the cycle. This can occur for various reasons, which can only be determined by an experienced gynecologist. However, even before turning to a specialist, the girl herself can understand if she has any problems. To do this, you need to know what is the normal duration of menstruation.

The duration of the menstrual cycle - the norm

Each organism has certain features, because there is no clear standard for the duration of menstruation. However, there are certain limits of the norm. As a rule, menstruation lasts 3-7 days. It may cause a feeling of weakness and slight pain in the lower abdomen. This condition is considered normal and should not cause concern.

If critical days last less than 3 days or more than a week, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist. Usually, such disorders indicate inflammation of the genital organs or problems with the balance of hormones in the body.

How much usually go first monthly in girls

The first menstruation, or menarche, usually happens at 12 years old, but sometimes it can happen at a different age. A variant of the rate is considered if the monthly begins at 10-15 years. From the time of the first menstruation it sometimes takes several months or a whole year until the cycle stabilizes.

In healthy girls, the cycle should be 28 days. The norm is the error in 2-4 days, provided regular monthly. An excellent option is the situation when menstruation lasts for 3-5 days.

Adolescent girls usually have scanty periods. Moreover, there may be a brown discharge or a few drops of blood. This is absolutely normal and can be explained by hormonal fluctuations occurring in the body.

At about 14-15 years old, the cycle stabilizes, and monthly periods usually last 3-4 days. At this age, every girl must control her period. If it lasts less than two days or more than a week, you need to visit a gynecologist.

After childbirth or cesarean section

After the birth of the baby, the first periods can be quite abundant and more like bleeding. This is quite normal, because everything superfluous must come out of the uterus. It is very important to monitor the color and smell of discharge. If a woman has the slightest suspicion of a natural process, you should consult a doctor.

The second periods should not be so abundant, but it is not at all necessary that they begin next month. This can happen sooner or later, and is also considered the norm. After the recovery is complete, the cycle stabilizes.

After cesarean section, the periods usually come at the same time as after ordinary births. However, if complications occur after surgery, menstrual function may not be restored for a long time. This is due to a long period of involution of the uterus due to the suture. If infectious complications occur, it will take some time to restore the ovaries.

The duration of the monthly cycle - how to count?

Some girls mistakenly believe that the menstrual cycle is the number of days between periods. In fact, it is necessary to consider the time from the beginning of one month to the beginning of the next. The first day must also be taken into account when making calculations.

To calculate the duration of the menstrual cycle, you can use the following formula:

The start date of the current month - the start date of the previous month + 1 day = cycle duration. For example, August 25 - July 28 + 1 day = 28 days. Thus, the duration of the normal cycle - 28 days.

The cycle duration is influenced by many individual characteristics of the organism:

  • stressful situations
  • acute and chronic diseases,
  • chronic fatigue,
  • environmental factors
  • climate change.

Given these features, it is not surprising that the body's work may vary. That is why deviations from the normal cycle in 6-7 days are not pathological. Doctors say that the duration of the cycle can be from 21 to 36 days.

To facilitate the counting process, you can use an ordinary calendar. It is necessary to note how long the menstruation lasts. Thanks to this, it is possible to monitor the regularity of the cycle and report this information to the gynecologist.

What determines the duration of menstruation?

The duration of this period is influenced by many factors:

  1. Genetic predisposition. If your immediate family members have a menstruation period of 8 days, then with a high degree of probability you will have the same duration. This situation does not require medical assistance, since it can not be changed with the help of drugs.
  2. Features of the body. The duration of the monthly depends on the work of the blood clotting system. Equally important is the length of the cervix and the structure of the reproductive system. The duration of critical days depends on these indicators.
  3. Violation of the day and nutrition. Girls who constantly adhere to exhausting diets or spend too much time at the computer, sacrificing their sleep, must understand that this will invariably affect the work of the genitals. As a result, periods can become more scarce or go a whole week instead of the usual three days.
  4. High physical exertion. Excessive exercise can negatively affect the cycle. Remember that any load must be increased gradually.
  5. Stressful situations and psychological stress. Such problems can cause serious disruptions in the menstrual cycle. As a result, the duration of menstruation may increase or decrease. In some cases, they disappear altogether.
  6. Acceptance of oral contraceptives. Hormonal drugs lead to a reduction in the duration of menstruation. Sometimes it disappears altogether. After the cessation of the use of tablets, the cycle should recover.
  7. The duration of menstruation is often influenced by various pathologies. Gynecological and endocrine diseases can lead to disruption of the cycle. To identify the cause of this condition, you should consult a doctor.
  8. The duration and regularity of the menstrual cycle are a direct indicator of women's health. Therefore, each girl should control the duration of menstruation. With the appearance of the slightest deviations it is very important to promptly contact your doctor.

Video: normal menstrual cycle and how to calculate it

The duration of the menstrual cycle should be from 21 to 35 days, ideally, this figure is 28 days. In this case, the duration of the month can vary from 2 to 7 days. The first menstruation should begin at 10–12 years, with monthly periods that may be irregular, after which the cycle stabilizes.

How to count the cycle of menstruation?

The menstrual cycle and its regularity are indicative of women's health. For any woman, you need to know how to consider the cycle of menstruation.

This is important for several reasons:

  • In terms of hygiene. Knowing exactly, or at least about the day of the beginning of menstruation, a woman can get ready not to be in an uncomfortable situation.
  • When planning pregnancy accurately knowing the period of menstruation, it is easy to calculate the period of ovulation and thereby significantly increase the chances of conception.
  • On the other hand, knowing the cycle of menstruation, you can calculate the days, safe days from unwanted pregnancy.
  • Most importantly, knowing your cycle will help detect any violations in time. So changes in the duration or the appearance of menstruation not in time are symptoms of the development of diseases.

Monthly cycle

The female physiological cycle is divided into the following phases:

  • Menstruation. or directly the period of bleeding from the uterus.
  • Follicular phase. Starting with the menstrual phase lasts 2 weeks. A new follicle is formed to mature a new egg.
  • Ovulation The follicle matures, releasing a mature, ready for fertilization, egg.
  • Luteal phase. Lasts from 10 to 16 days. During this period, the body of women is prepared for pregnancy. Many girls in this phase have premenstrual syndrome.

How to count?

Not all women know how to correctly calculate their female cycle. So, first of all, it should be said that it is necessary to start the counting from the first day of the bloody discharge, to finish - the last day before the new menstruation. Ideally, the monthly cycle is 28 days. But not all women do this. The norm is also considered a deviation from this figure in one week. That is, if the ladies cycle lasts from 21 to 35 days, there is nothing to worry about. If not, you should definitely consult a doctor for a qualified consultation. It is also important to remember that the cycle should be regular. If one month it has 25 days, and the second - 32 - this is not normal. Variations are possible within 1-3 days. Otherwise, again, you should contact your gynecologist for advice and search for causes.

We further consider the monthly cycle in women. What other terms do you need to know?

  1. Ovulation (from Latin translated as "egg"). This is one of the processes of the menstrual cycle. At this time, the follicle is torn, and an egg cell comes out of it, completely ready for fertilization.
  2. Menstruation. It occurs approximately 12-15 days after ovulation. These are bloody discharges with which a detached endometrium comes out as unnecessary (if pregnancy does not occur).

Phases of the monthly cycle - this is what else you need to tell in this article. So, this question can be approached in different ways. According to one version, there are only two phases of the menstrual cycle:

  1. Follicular
  2. Luteal (secretory, or the phase of the yellow body).

Why is this separation going? All because of hormones, which in a certain period are dominant in the reproductive organs of the female body. Often you can see the information that there are two more phases of the monthly cycle:

However, most scientists believe that it is not entirely correct to distinguish them in terms of hormonal levels. However, it is believed that they more clearly show the processes occurring in the ovaries and uterus. In addition, these phases are very important during pregnancy planning, so they cannot be completely excluded. Below will be considered all four phases.

First phase: menstruation

The normal cycle of menstruation begins with the first phase, which is calculated from the first day of the bleeding. This is the so-called monthly. At this time, the exit occurs along with the blood of the previously rejected endometrium. This process can still be called a preparation for receiving a new egg. As for the duration, this phase has only 3 to 6 days. It ends before the end of bleeding from women. What else is important to say, studying the cycle of menstruation? How much blood should normally be allocated to a girl? Not more than 80 ml for the entire period of menstruation. If a woman replaces pads or tampons more than 10 times a day - this is an occasion to consult a doctor. You should also ask for help if bleeding goes for a week or more.

Possible problems

What problems can arise in this phase?

  1. Amenorrhea (prefix "a" means no). This is a complete lack of bleeding. However, this diagnosis can only be made if a similar phenomenon has been observed for half a year.
  2. Algomenorrhea (prefix "algo" means pain). This is painful menstruation when a woman feels very bad. At this time, the working capacity of women is sharply reduced.
  3. Menorrhagia. This is too abundant bloody discharge. This diagnosis can be made if the woman’s menstruation lasts more than 7 days or the amount of discharge is more than 80 ml.

Second phase: follicular

We study further the monthly cycle. Norm is when the second phase of a woman lasts for about two weeks after the completion of the bleeding. At this time, the woman's brain begins to send certain impulses, under the influence of which the follicle-stimulating hormone is actively produced, and the follicles grow in the ovaries. A dominant follicle is gradually formed, which will be home to the maturation of the egg in the future. At the same time, a hormone such as estrogen is actively produced in the body of a woman. He is working on updating the lining of the uterus. This hormone also affects the cervical mucus so much that it becomes immune to sperm.

Violation of the cycle of menstruation in the second phase can cause various stresses and diseases. In this case, the third phase of the female cycle will come somewhat later than usual.

Phase Three: Ovulation

This is the middle of the monthly cycle. At this moment there is a restructuring of hormones in the female body. The level of FSH, i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone, is significantly reduced, but LH, ie, luteinizing hormone, is immediately released. Period time frame: three days. What happens at this time with the female body?

  1. LH makes the cervix very susceptible to semen.
  2. Egg maturation ends.
  3. The ovule is released from the follicle, after which it enters the fallopian tubes and awaits conception (about two days).

Phase Four: Luteal

Also, it can still be called the "phase of the yellow body." After the follicle is released, it begins to actively produce the hormone progesterone, whose main task is to prepare the uterine mucosa for implantation. At the same time, cervical mucus dries out, production of LH stops. If a normal monthly cycle is traced in females, then this phase lasts no more than 16 days (for a maximum of 12 days, the fertilized egg must attach to the uterus).

  1. If fertilization has occurred: in this case, the egg enters the uterus, is implanted, and the production of the so-called pregnancy hormone begins, which will be active throughout the entire period of gestation of the baby.
  2. If fertilization has not occurred: in this case, the corpus luteum and the egg die, progesterone production is terminated. This causes the destruction of the endometrium, which leads to its rejection and the onset of the first phase of the new menstrual cycle - bleeding.

Cycle and conception

Every lady should know her correct monthly cycle. After all, it is very important in that situation if you want to prepare for the conception of a baby or, on the contrary, avoid unwanted pregnancy. After all, as everyone knows, there are favorable and dangerous days of the female cycle. In more detail about this:

  1. The maximum probability of conception is a couple of days before ovulation or at the time of the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
  2. It is worth remembering that male sperm live up to seven days in the female way, so fertilization is possible even if unprotected sexual intercourse occurred a week before ovulation.
  3. Favorable days for those who still do not want to have children: a couple of days after ovulation. The egg cell has already died at this time, fertilization will not occur.

However, it should be said that it is very difficult to accurately predict ovulation. After all, the female body is not an ideal machine. If you do not want to get pregnant, it is best not to rely on your calculations, but to additionally be protected by modern means, say, condoms.

Basal temperature

We study further the monthly cycle. Rate and deviations must be known to every woman. Here you also want to talk about how you can identify yourself with the phases. To do this, it is enough to trace the graph of the basal temperature (as is known, this is the measurement of temperature indicators in the vagina of the lady or in the rectum). In the first days after bleeding, the temperature should be kept at around 37 ° C. Further, it usually decreases slightly, and then “jumps” by 0.5 ° C and is normally more than 37 ° C. On this indicator, the temperature is kept almost all the time, but a few days before the onset of menstruation again decreases. If this does not happen, we can say that the girl became pregnant. If the temperature has not changed at all during the whole cycle, it means that the third phase - ovulation - did not occur.

Modern women very often suffer from such a problem as a violation of the cycle of menstruation. What symptoms may signal this?

  1. The increase in the interval between menstruation, a significant fluctuation.
  2. Change of days in the cycle (deviation of more than three days in any direction).
  3. Copious or scanty bloody discharge.
  4. The complete absence of menstruation for at least two months (if this, of course, is not a sign of pregnancy).
  5. The appearance of bleeding in different phases of the menstrual cycle (not only in the first).
  6. The duration of bleeding more than a week or less than three days.

These are the main problems that should alert the lady. In this case, be sure to contact a gynecologist for advice and find out the causes of these phenomena.

If a woman has lost her monthly cycle, the reasons for this may be as follows:

  1. Weight change - obesity or a sharp loss. Starvation, as well as the consumption of harmful to the body of food and overeating, affects the whole body, and especially the reproductive function of women. Accordingly, the menstrual cycle.
  2. Stress. In this state, the lady actively begins to produce the hormone prolactin, which is able to inhibit ovulation and cause a delay in menstruation.
  3. Physical exercise.
  4. Acclimatization. If a woman changes the belt of stay - from the heat gets into the cold or vice versa, the body turns on the defenses, which can affect the female cycle.
  5. If the lady has lost the monthly cycle, the reason for this may be hormonal failure (violation of the production of certain hormones).
  6. Women's diseases. The cycle can be lost if the lady has the following problems: inflammation of the uterus, pathology of her cervix, cysts, polyps of the uterus, her appendages.
  7. Acceptance of oral contraceptives. If a woman is just beginning to take birth control pills, at first, while the body is adapting, there may be certain failures. However, after a maximum of three months, if the drugs are chosen correctly, a clear and normal cycle of menstruation will be established.
  8. Adolescence and menopause. During these periods, the female cycle may be irregular, which is not an indication of particular problems with the body. In a young girl, the first cycle of menstruation will never be indicative of the fact that the period will continue to pass in the same way.
  9. The lady will completely stop menstruation if pregnancy occurs.
  10. Huge cycle problems will be in the case of involuntary or planned abortions.

Diagnostics

If a lady started her period in the middle of a cycle or any other problem arose, she must seek medical advice. After all, this may be the cause of quite serious problems with the body. By what indicators will the gynecologist carry out the diagnostics?

  1. Survey (obtaining full information about the possible causes of violations).
  2. Gynecological examination of the patient.
  3. Taking all the smears needed for analysis.
  4. Blood and urine tests.

If these procedures did not give complete answers to questions of interest to the doctor, additional tests may be prescribed to the lady:

  1. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs or abdominal cavity.
  2. Tests for hormones.
  3. MRI - magnetic resonance imaging (identification of pathological changes in the tissues, as well as the search for possible tumors).
  4. Hysteroscopy (examination of the patient's uterus with a special tool).

Only a combination of these methods of examining the patient's condition can provide a complete picture of the causes of her illness, which will lead to a correct diagnosis and proper treatment.

Diseases

Above, it was said a little about what problems may arise with the female menstrual cycle and which against the background of this disease develops. However, this is not a complete list.

  1. Hypomenorrhea. This is a very meager bleeding.
  2. Opsomenorei. Significant shortening of the duration of bleeding in women.
  3. Oligomenorrhea. This is an increase in the honey interval by the lady’s bleeding.

All these problems should cause concern. Every woman should remember that timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease is very important.

Complications

If a woman has lost the cycle (between periods, for example, there are different periods of time) or other problems with women's health arise, you should immediately contact a doctor for a qualified consultation. After all, if time does not diagnose and treat the disease, it can lead to serious complications, which will be extremely difficult to cope with. It is worth remembering that later identifying the pathologies that cause failures of the menstrual cycle, can lead not only to the impossibility of becoming pregnant, but even to the death of a young woman.

Treatment: simple tips

If a woman has a slight disruption of the menstrual cycle, you can try to correct the situation without the intervention of doctors. To do this, it is enough to correctly adjust your day regimen and meals. That is, all harmful products should be excluded from food, more attention should be paid to the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, and also cereals. In sufficient quantities, the lady should also rest: at least a seven-hour night's sleep, interruptions in work, physical activity and being in the open air - only these nuances can correct the female cycle with minor disruptions.

Doctor treatment

If the girl still needs to seek medical help, treatment will be prescribed based on the reasons that led to hormonal failure.

  1. If stress is the cause, sedatives will be given to the patient.
  2. If there are problems with bleeding, hemostatic drugs, aminocaproic acid can be attributed to the woman (to eliminate bleeding if menstruation occurs in the middle of the cycle).
  3. In case of heavy bleeding, the lady can infuse donor blood, plasma.
  4. Surgical intervention is possible (including hysterectomy, i.e., uterus removal).
  5. In some cases, the girl may be prescribed antibiotics (if the cause of the failure is an infectious disease).
  6. The most common methods of treatment - the appointment of hormonal drugs to regulate hormonal levels.

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How many days go monthly

The topic of menstruation is very relevant for every girl, because this process is the first indicator of women's health. Regular periods and a normal cycle suggest that there are no gynecological pathologies in the body, and therefore a girl can conceive and give birth to a healthy baby.

In this case, women often have various violations of the cycle. This can occur for various reasons, which can only be determined by an experienced gynecologist. However, even before turning to a specialist, the girl herself can understand if she has any problems. To do this, you need to know what is the normal duration of menstruation.

The duration of the menstrual cycle - the norm

Each organism has certain features, because there is no clear standard for the duration of menstruation. However, there are certain limits of the norm. As a rule, menstruation lasts 3-7 days. It may cause a feeling of weakness and slight pain in the lower abdomen. This condition is considered normal and should not cause concern.

If critical days last less than 3 days or more than a week, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist. Usually, such disorders indicate inflammation of the genital organs or problems with the balance of hormones in the body.

How much usually go first monthly in girls

The first menstruation, or menarche, usually happens at 12 years old, but sometimes it can happen at a different age. A variant of the rate is considered if the monthly begins at 10-15 years. From the time of the first menstruation it sometimes takes several months or a whole year until the cycle stabilizes.

In healthy girls, the cycle should be 28 days. The norm is the error in 2-4 days, provided regular monthly. An excellent option is the situation when menstruation lasts for 3-5 days.

Adolescent girls usually have scanty periods. Moreover, there may be a brown discharge or a few drops of blood. This is absolutely normal and can be explained by hormonal fluctuations occurring in the body.

At about 14-15 years old, the cycle stabilizes, and monthly periods usually last 3-4 days. At this age, every girl must control her period. If it lasts less than two days or more than a week, you need to visit a gynecologist.

After childbirth or cesarean section

After the birth of the baby, the first periods can be quite abundant and more like bleeding. This is quite normal, because everything superfluous must come out of the uterus. It is very important to monitor the color and smell of discharge. If a woman has the slightest suspicion of a natural process, you should consult a doctor.

The second periods should not be so abundant, but it is not at all necessary that they begin next month. This can happen sooner or later, and is also considered the norm. After the recovery is complete, the cycle stabilizes.

After cesarean section, the periods usually come at the same time as after ordinary births. However, if complications occur after surgery, menstrual function may not be restored for a long time. This is due to a long period of involution of the uterus due to the suture. If infectious complications occur, it will take some time to restore the ovaries.

The duration of the monthly cycle - how to count?

Some girls mistakenly believe that the menstrual cycle is the number of days between periods. In fact, it is necessary to consider the time from the beginning of one month to the beginning of the next. The first day must also be taken into account when making calculations.

To calculate the duration of the menstrual cycle, you can use the following formula:

The start date of the current month - the start date of the previous month + 1 day = cycle duration. For example, August 25 - July 28 + 1 day = 28 days. Thus, the duration of the normal cycle - 28 days.

The cycle duration is influenced by many individual characteristics of the organism:

  • stressful situations
  • acute and chronic diseases,
  • chronic fatigue,
  • environmental factors
  • climate change.

Given these features, it is not surprising that the body's work may vary. That is why deviations from the normal cycle in 6-7 days are not pathological. Doctors say that the duration of the cycle can be from 21 to 36 days.

To facilitate the counting process, you can use an ordinary calendar. It is necessary to note how long the menstruation lasts. Thanks to this, it is possible to monitor the regularity of the cycle and report this information to the gynecologist.

What determines the duration of menstruation?

The duration of this period is influenced by many factors:

  1. Genetic predisposition. If your immediate family members have a menstruation period of 8 days, then with a high degree of probability you will have the same duration. This situation does not require medical assistance, since it can not be changed with the help of drugs.
  2. Features of the body. The duration of the monthly depends on the work of the blood clotting system. Equally important is the length of the cervix and the structure of the reproductive system. The duration of critical days depends on these indicators.
  3. Violation of the day and nutrition. Girls who constantly adhere to exhausting diets or spend too much time at the computer, sacrificing their sleep, must understand that this will invariably affect the work of the genitals. As a result, periods can become more scarce or go a whole week instead of the usual three days.
  4. High physical exertion. Excessive exercise can negatively affect the cycle. Remember that any load must be increased gradually.
  5. Stressful situations and psychological stress. Such problems can cause serious disruptions in the menstrual cycle. As a result, the duration of menstruation may increase or decrease. In some cases, they disappear altogether.
  6. Acceptance of oral contraceptives. Hormonal drugs lead to a reduction in the duration of menstruation. Sometimes it disappears altogether. After the cessation of the use of tablets, the cycle should recover.
  7. The duration of menstruation is often influenced by various pathologies. Gynecological and endocrine diseases can lead to disruption of the cycle. To identify the cause of this condition, you should consult a doctor.
  8. The duration and regularity of the menstrual cycle are a direct indicator of women's health. Therefore, each girl should control the duration of menstruation. With the appearance of the slightest deviations it is very important to promptly contact your doctor.

Video: normal menstrual cycle and how to calculate it

The duration of the menstrual cycle should be from 21 to 35 days, ideally, this figure is 28 days. In this case, the duration of the month can vary from 2 to 7 days. The first menstruation should begin at 10–12 years, with monthly periods that may be irregular, after which the cycle stabilizes.

How to count the cycle of menstruation?

The menstrual cycle and its regularity are indicative of women's health. For any woman, you need to know how to consider the cycle of menstruation.

This is important for several reasons:

  • In terms of hygiene. Knowing exactly, or at least about the day of the beginning of menstruation, a woman can get ready not to be in an uncomfortable situation.
  • When planning pregnancy accurately knowing the period of menstruation, it is easy to calculate the period of ovulation and thereby significantly increase the chances of conception.
  • On the other hand, knowing the cycle of menstruation, you can calculate the days, safe days from unwanted pregnancy.
  • Most importantly, knowing your cycle will help detect any violations in time. So changes in the duration or the appearance of menstruation not in time are symptoms of the development of diseases.

What it is?

Menstruation refers to a certain period of a woman’s physiological cycle, in which her body gets rid of an unfertilized egg cell and endometrium. Menstruation is cyclical and repeated after a certain period in the woman's body.

Monthly cycle

The female physiological cycle is divided into the following phases:

  • Menstruation. or directly the period of bleeding from the uterus.
  • Follicular phase. Starting with the menstrual phase lasts 2 weeks. A new follicle is formed to mature a new egg.
  • Ovulation The follicle matures, releasing a mature, ready for fertilization, egg.
  • Luteal phase. Lasts from 10 to 16 days. During this period, the body of women is prepared for pregnancy. Many girls in this phase have premenstrual syndrome.

How to count?

Many girls are interested in how to count the cycle of menstruation? It is quite simple to determine the cycle, especially if the menstrual period runs with the same frequency and without problems.

The beginning of the cycle is the first day when blood discharge begins. The end is the last day before the next menstruation.

For accurate calculation will help keeping a monthly calendar. It is recommended to record the duration of menstruation, the day of commencement and termination. In modern times on the Internet there are many ways and programs "how to calculate the monthly cycle" for maintaining the monthly calendar. These calendars will help calculate the favorable for conception days, and at the same time point to safe days from unwanted pregnancy.

Monitoring the period of menstruation for several months will help to more accurately and correctly determine the duration of the cycle.

When does ovulation occur?

The question of the onset of ovulation is very worried about girls who want to get pregnant. Ovulation is the optimal period for fertilization, because it is at this time that the egg leaves the follicle, waiting for the sperm. And this process takes place approximately in the middle of the whole cycle. If fertilization has not occurred, the egg leaves the body and the woman begins the next menstruation.

Should take into account the activity of sperm, which lasts up to 5 days. On this basis, several days before and after ovulation are considered favorable time for conception.

There are indirect signs of ovulation:

  • discharges from the vagina vary in consistency and quantity, they become viscous and more abundant,
  • a woman has increased sexual desire
  • there is an increase in basal body temperature.

Calculate the favorable time for conception is quite simple. Here is an example: from the duration of the cycle, for example, 28 days it is necessary to take two figures. To find out the first auspicious day, you need to subtract 18. Thus, the tenth day will be the first favorable day for conception. If we take 10 from 28, then we get the number of the last favorable day, in this case 18. Thus, the period from 10 to 18 is the most favorable time with a high probability of becoming pregnant.

In case of an unstable cycle, it is necessary to choose the largest and smallest value and the calculation to lead from them. For example, the longest is 34 days, and the shortest is 22. From the long subtract 10 (34-10 = 24), and from the short 18 (22-18 = 4), that is, from 4 to 24 days there is a high probability of becoming pregnant.

Monthly duration

The duration of menstruation is different for each woman. Even in one woman, the menstrual period can be different, shorter or longer.

When changing the duration of menstruation, the cycle of menstruation is considered irregular, which may indicate the development of deviations or characteristics of the organism.

Causes of violation

At any phase of menstruation, various disorders can occur that can cause various diseases, besides stresses and experiences in a woman.

Women often have such a problem as a failure of the menstruation cycle for various reasons:

  • stressful situations
  • excessive exercise
  • taking contraceptive drugs
  • climate change,
  • the period of menopause and adolescence,
  • gestation period
  • postpartum and lactation,
  • abortion.

Many of these reasons speak about instability of a menstrual cycle, being considered as norm. Also, it should be noted that in many of these situations, for example, during menopause, puberty, breastfeeding there is a chance to get pregnant.

What are the causes of monthly 2 times a month. Read the article about the rate and pathology, the causes of menstruation twice a month, the influence of diseases and other factors, as well as the need to consult a doctor.

How to speed up the monthly to go faster? Details in the article.

If the cycle is disturbed due to reproductive problems and the general condition of the body, it is necessary to consult a doctor:

  • changes on hormonal background,
  • inflammatory diseases of the female part,
  • a sharp decrease / increase in body weight,
  • the presence of diseases of the sexual sphere,
  • chronic diseases.

Symptoms of a cycle violation will be:

  • decrease or increase in the break between menstruation,
  • change the number of days in the cycle in any direction,
  • changing the nature of bleeding,
  • complete absence of menstruation for two months or more (except for pregnancy),
  • the appearance of blood discharge between menstruation,
  • the duration of the menstrual period is more than three weeks or less than three days.

If any of these symptoms appear, you should consult a gynecologist for consultation, undergo a diagnostic examination. A medical examination and diagnosis will help establish the disease and its causes. After establishing an accurate diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe a course of treatment.

In cases of one-time violation of the cycle, do not worry much. Deviations in any direction for no more than 7 days is not considered pathology. The modern pace of life, stressful situations, fatigue and lack of sleep can affect the nature of menstruation. Must be observed for at least two months. In addition, it is necessary to observe the nature of the discharge, color, smell.

As a preventive measure, you should visit the gynecologist 2 times a year.

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