Nowadays, such a condition as cervical erosion is increasingly being diagnosed.
But quite often this condition is confused with ectopia. Therefore, it is necessary to understand what erosion is and what is meant by ectopia, from which this condition arises, and also how to prevent its occurrence.
This article will discuss all the possible causes of the development of this disease in nulliparous women.
Can a woman have to give birth?
Erosis of the cervix is called a defect of the mucous membrane. Often this condition is confused with the ectopia of the cervix (pseudo-erosion) - the release of the epithelium that lines the cervical canal into its vaginal part. It can be either congenital or acquired. Even girls who are not sexually active or have not given birth can diagnose this condition. Pseudo-erosion does not represent any danger to the life of the girl.
Pseudo-erosion, endocervicosis, false erosion, and glandular muscle hyperplasia are synonymous with ectopia.
What comes from?
What causes erosion and ectopia of the cervix? Possible causative factors for the occurrence of this condition include:
- Disruption of the hormonal status. It is explained by the change in the ratio of sex hormones in a woman's body. This is most often the cause of ectopia in adolescent girls during puberty, virgins. Due to the same reason, ectopia can be detected in pregnant women or in girls who have had earlier pregnancies, since during this period a change in the hormonal status also occurs. Also, changing the hormonal status is possible when using drugs for oral contraception.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases (vaginitis, endocervicitis, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis and others). In these diseases, pathological secretions appear. They act on the mucous membrane, from which the tissue appears, replaced further by another type of epithelium.
- Immune status impairment (decrease in protective functions). It can cause this condition at any age.
- Trauma mucous. It is possible with the use of means for barrier and chemical types of contraception, the onset of sexual activity during the period of imperfect maturity of the genital organs and their components (early onset), as well as with frequent changes of sexual partners. Often, mucosal injury can be obtained during an abortion using both conservative and instrumental methods.
- Congenital condition. Most often for this reason, ectopia appears in girls who have not reached puberty.
During puberty, the restoration of the normal picture of the cervical mucous membrane, which was observed earlier, is most often observed.
Doctors-gynecologists note that before starting a course of pseudo-erosion therapy, it is necessary to find out why this condition has arisen and to eliminate as much as possible the provoking factors. Special attention is paid to this if ectopia is diagnosed in women who have not given birth. Otherwise, a relapse after treatment is possible.
Does it need to be treated and in what cases?
If the ectopia has no complications, then treatment is not required.. In this case, it is shown that the gynecologist constantly monitors for the timely detection of deviations in the clinical course, since ectopia is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of oncological diseases in this area.
In this case, etiotropic therapy is prescribed (antibacterial and antiviral) agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, immune disorders in the body are corrected, and the correct selection of hormonal contraceptive means is performed.
After that apply surgical methods of treatment:
- cryogenic effect
- laser coagulation
- chemical coagulation methods.
If leukoplakia, dysplasia, polyps, and endometriosis are complications of pseudo-erosion, then specific therapies are used.
To preventive measures are attributed:
Observation with a specialist (gynecologist) once a year. This will allow to identify the process in a timely manner, as well as to determine the possible treatment tactics.
- Personal hygiene. By keeping the genitals clean, a decrease in local immune status can be prevented, which can lead to infection penetration and the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
- Sparing methods of gynecological examination. This will help reduce the risk of injury and the development of adverse effects.
- Lack of sex before age 18. This will allow harmonious development of the organs of the female reproductive system.
- Having a single sexual partner. In this case, there is no response of the immune system of the body, and therefore there are no predisposing factors to the development of the process of inflammation.
- Abortion prevention. Abortion implies an excessive trauma to the mucous membrane, which may be accompanied by the addition of a secondary infection.
The forecast of this condition is favorable.
Ectopia of the cervix should not be confused with erosion of the cervical canal, as they have various causal factors, manifestations and methods of treatment. To prevent the occurrence of pseudo-erosion, simple preventive measures should be observed, as well as observed by a gynecologist, which will allow to evaluate the process over time.
Is there erosion, or what is considered the norm?
Many women, coming out of the gynecologist's office, ask themselves the logical question: is it all so scary, as the doctor says? If you believe the messages on numerous forums on the Internet and stories of girlfriends, it turns out that cervical erosion occurs in almost every woman. It also turns out that for many women it goes on its own without any treatment, and most often it happens after the birth of the first child.
It turns out that erosion is a variant of the norm and does not need to be treated? But it is not. It is necessary to understand that The causes of cervical erosion can be completely different in each particular case, and it is impossible to sort them out without targeted examination. It should be clear what the patient threatens the diseases of the reproductive sphere, before making any serious decision and trying one or another treatment strategy.
First, not all erosion is what it is. On examination, the doctor sees only a red or pink spot - a transformation zone. But what it is - true erosion, ectopia, dysplasia, or some other pathology, can be ascertained only after colposcopy and other specific methods of examination. Not every spot, conditionally designated as cervical erosion, is a harmless formation that does not require therapy.
Secondly, to determine whether erosion has passed, it is possible only with the help of colposcopy and a smear on oncocytology. If the doctor does not see the pathology on the cervix with the naked eye, this does not mean that it is not there.
To establish an accurate diagnosis when changes in the cervix are detected, a series of tests is necessary.
Thirdly, not every erosion can be cured independently, including after childbirth. On the contrary, some types of cervical pathologies (for example, ectropion) occur just after severe and traumatic labor, surgical abortion, or other instrumental interventions.
Thus, the causes of cervical erosion in births can be different. How this pathology behaves cannot be predicted in advance either. It does not help advice girlfriends and opinions expressed in numerous forums. The best thing a woman can do in this case is to consult a gynecologist and undergo a full examination by a specialist.
Causes of cervical erosion
Occurrence of cervical pathology in unborn young women may be due to a variety of reasons. In most cases, the doctor can find and eliminate the provoking factor. It happens that the exact cause of the development of the pathology remains unknown, and then only symptomatic treatment is carried out.
Consider the possible causes of cervical erosion in women who have not given birth.
In medicine, this disease is known as cervical ectopia. According to gynecological statistics, this pathology is detected in every third patient. Other ectopic names are pseudo-erosion or endocervicosis.
The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood. It is known that in the area of the cervix there are two types of epithelium: cylindrical and stratified squamous. Normally, the squamous epithelium covers the vaginal part of the organ, whereas the cylindrical one should not extend beyond the cervical canal. However, in adolescent girls and young women, the so-called transformation zone is often found, in which the cylindrical epithelium shifts to the upper (front) and lower (back) lip of the cervix. This is ectopia - false erosion.
Ectopia of the cervix is not included in ICD-10 and is considered as a variant of the norm in women under the age of 25 years. Pathology is usually detected completely by chance during routine inspection in mirrors. As a rule, an ectopia is discovered after the girl begins to live sexually (virgins are not examined in the mirrors).
Ectopia for a long time is asymptomatic and does not bother. Acyclic bloody vaginal discharge may occur. Such discharge is called contact, because they usually occur after intercourse, the introduction of tampons, gynecological examination. Selections are possible and for no apparent reason. Strengthening of natural vaginal secretions, dyeing them in yellow or green color, joining itch or burning sensation indicates infection of erosion.
One of the most common causes of erosion is a congenital defect, the so-called ectopia, which is considered the physiological norm and does not require treatment.
Congenital erosion of the cervix does not require treatment. The gynecologist recommends that the patient monitor vaginal discharge and follow the rules of intimate hygiene. At the age of 25-30 years, ectopia passes independently in connection with the “maturation” of the epithelium. Hormonal alterations during pregnancy also contribute to the spontaneous closure of the defect, so this erosion quite often disappears after the birth of a child. If the pathology on the cervix is preserved after childbirth, the question of cauterization is solved.
For timely detection of pathology, it is recommended to visit a gynecologist at least once a year. Women with existing problems should visit the doctor every 6 months.
The cause of the formation of erosion can be various infections. We are talking about both classic STIs (sexually transmitted infections) and the activation of our own conditionally pathogenic flora against the background of reduced immunity. This pathology is rarely detected in girls during adolescence. In most cases, true erosion of the cervix occurs in women who have sex.
Probable infectious agents leading to the development of pathology:
- HPV - Human Papillomavirus. The most dangerous infection for women. HPV is a major cause of dysplasia and cervical cancer. Any erosion can be potentially dangerous in terms of the development of carcinoma and requires a mandatory examination by a doctor,
- Chlamydia. Pathogenic microorganisms that are sexually transmitted or contact-domestic. In addition to erosion, threaten the development of obstruction of the fallopian tubes and infertility,
- Ureaplasma. Conditionally pathogenic microorganism that lives in the urethra. It leads to the occurrence of dysuric phenomena, may be the cause of cervical erosion in young women. During pregnancy, it is dangerous for the fetus: it can lead to intrauterine infection and miscarriage.
- Mycoplasma infection. Some mycoplasmas are representatives of normal microflora, while others belong to STIs. By their action similar to ureaplasma. They are often found together during examination,
- Syphilis. Accompanied by the appearance of specific granulomas on the genitals. Often leads to the appearance of true inflammatory erosion of the cervix,
- Tuberculosis. Rare, but quite dangerous cause of erosion. Accompanied by other specific changes in the woman's body. In the long term leads to infertility,
- Nonspecific flora (E. coli, streptococci, staphylococci, fungi, etc.). Activated by reducing local or general immunity, leading to the development of cervicitis, colpitis and concomitant erosion on the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Human papillomavirus is one of the most dangerous infections, which is often associated with cancer processes.
True erosion is accompanied by the appearance of specific secretions. This may be abnormal vaginal discharge (yellow or green, abundant, with an admixture of pus), as well as contact bloody. The general condition of the woman is usually not disturbed, although with some acute processes there is an increase in body temperature. After elimination of the infection, the defect on the mucous membrane heals and erosion passes without a trace.
Defect of the mucous membrane of the cervix may occur after radiation exposure. Such erosion develops quickly enough, steadily progressing and causes a lot of discomfort. A similar complication inevitably arises in the treatment of pelvic cancer. After the removal of the traumatic factor, the defect slowly heals. To speed up the regeneration, topical medications can be prescribed.
Complications after destructive treatment
Various methods are actively used for the treatment of cervical disease. Among others, laser vaporization, electrocoagulation, and cryodestruction should be noted. It is after the application of any of these methods that, in some cases, true erosion occurs. Such a defect is nothing but a burn of the mucous membrane as a result of careless actions of the doctor. The reason may be aggressive cauterization or incorrectly chosen laser beam power. The individual sensitivity of the patient's body to the effects of laser or other types of treatment is not excluded.
Erosion, which occurred after cauterization, makes itself felt by contact bloody vaginal discharge. You may feel mild pulling pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort during intercourse. All these symptoms clearly indicate problems in the body and require a mandatory consultation with a doctor. For the rapid healing of the burned surface, agents are assigned to enhance tissue regeneration and restore the integrity of the cervix.
One of the rarest causes of the appearance of pathology in women who have not given birth. Such erosion can occur with the inaccurate introduction of a gynecological instrument and the aggressive conduct of certain manipulations. As a result of injury, a defect of the mucous membrane occurs. Erosion makes itself felt bloody discharge (mainly after sexual intercourse). In the event of an infection, abundant pus discharge from the vagina with an unpleasant pungent odor appears.
Contact discharge (for example, after intimacy or gynecological examination) can be a symptom of erosion.
For treatment, agents that accelerate tissue regeneration and promote healing of erosion are used. According to the testimony used antiseptics and local antibiotics. Such erosion usually disappears within 1-3 weeks (during therapy).
If you experience any discomfort during a pelvic examination or any procedure, you should immediately inform your doctor.
Consequences of abortion
The absence of a childbirth in the history of a woman does not mean that there was not a single pregnancy in her life. It happens that a young woman has an abortion. Miscarriage as well as regressing pregnancy is not excluded. In any of these conditions, identified after 6 weeks, curettage of the uterus is performed. This is a rather traumatic procedure, which involves opening the cervix with a special tool, inserting a curette and removing a part of the endometrium with the fetal egg.
It happens that after an abortion, defects or even scars remain on the cervix. The longer the pregnancy during which the abortion was performed, the higher the likelihood of such complications. In the early stages of the problem are extremely rare.
One of the characteristic conditions arising after a traumatic abortion is ectropion - inversion of the cylindrical epithelium on the vaginal part of the cervix. In essence, this pathology is a type of acquired ectopia. В отличие от врожденной эктопии, такой дефект никогда не проходит самостоятельно и требует обязательного лечения.
В последнее время все чаще говорят о психологических причинах возникновения эрозии шейки матки. Participants in numerous Internet forums seriously deny any other factors in the development of this pathology. It is argued that cervical disease in young nonpartum women occurs in the following conditions:
- Denying yourself as a woman, misunderstanding your feminine essence and purpose,
- Conflict with a man - sexual partner,
- Dissatisfaction with the sexual life,
- Inability to feel desirable for a beloved man.
It is believed that small ulcers on the cervix occur in various conflicts with the spouse or lover. In the future, everything will depend on the behavior of partners. If the couple breaks up, the defect will grow and may even lead to cancer. And reconciliation of partners and a full-fledged sex life, on the contrary, contribute to the healing of the ulcer.
Harmonious relationships with a partner can play an important role in restoring women's health.
Gynecologists are skeptical of psychosomatics as the sole cause of erosion. Currently there is no convincing evidence that this theory works. However, not a single doctor will deny that maintaining the harmony in the family will benefit the patient. Trust with your beloved man, plus following the recommendations of the gynecologist give a good chance of recovery and getting rid of erosion.
Consequences of cervical erosion
Despite the fact that congenital ectopia is considered a variant of the norm, a woman should regularly visit a doctor and look after her health. Even if the doctor does not offer immediate treatment, the condition of the cervix must be monitored. The consequences of not paying attention to the problem can be very sad:
- Infection with erosion, development of cervicitis and the spread of infection to the pelvic organs (which may eventually lead to infertility),
- The rapid growth of the defect and the increase in the eroded surface,
- Frequent bleeding, interfering with sexual life,
- The development of carcinoma.
It should be remembered that the severe pathology of the cervix can be hidden under the guise of erosion. It is necessary to make sure that the existing defect is not dangerous in terms of the development of cancer, and only after that to decide on its possible treatment.
expectant tactics during erosion is not always justified. Finally, the scheme of therapy is developed only after a full examination of the patient.
When the first symptoms of pathology appear, you should definitely visit a doctor. Even if a woman is not bothered by anything, she needs to visit a gynecologist for a routine checkup at least once a year. This is the only way to identify the problem in time and prevent the development of dangerous complications.
After examination in the mirrors, the doctor may prescribe such examinations:
- Smear oncocytology,
- Survey smear from the vagina,
- Bacteriological culture from the cervical canal,
- STI screening,
- Colposcopy (including video-colposcopy with the ability to save video and print photos),
- Biopsy (if necessary).
A smear on oncocytology allows to study the state of the epithelium of the cervix and to determine the presence or absence of oncology.
After receiving all the data, a diagnosis is made and a treatment strategy is developed. Such options are possible:
- Expectant tactics: observation, regular check-ups at the gynecologist,
- Treatment of concomitant infection and control of the cervix,
- Cauterization of erosion by one of the available methods.
The choice of therapy will depend on the type of erosion, the age of the woman, her reproductive status and the presence of concomitant pathology.
Are there any alternative treatments?
Is it possible to cure the pathology of folk remedies? Many women do not want to cauterize erosion or use various means for the treatment of co-infection, explaining that fear of possible manipulation and unwillingness to expose the body to the effects of various chemicals. Grandma's methods come to the rescue - various recipes of traditional medicine. What only techniques are not found on the Internet:
- Defect processing with honey (May honey is especially popular),
- The use of onion peel, aloe juice and other plants with wound healing effect,
- Using plants containing phytoestrogens to normalize hormonal levels and eliminate pathology,
- The use of fish oil, curd whey and various oils - inside and directly into the vagina.
Unfortunately, none of these methods often brings the desired result. Erosion is not always a wound defect, and various herbs with regenerative action are powerless here. Attempts to introduce into the vagina a variety of homemade ointments and creams can provoke the development of allergies and cause infection of erosion. The use of phytoestrogens in some cases threatens the progression of the disease and the deterioration of the woman’s condition. You should not use dubious techniques and put your body at an unnecessary risk.
Childbirth during cervical erosion
The most important question that worries every young woman: how will the birth take place with this pathology? It all depends on the type of defect. It has been observed that pregnancy favorably affects congenital ectopia, and often such erosion can occur on its own. Ectopia does not interfere with the normal course of pregnancy and childbirth, does not affect the postpartum period. Births in this case pass through the natural birth canal, if there are no other indications for surgery.
Certain difficulties arise in true and post-traumatic erosion. In this case, the risk is a co-infection. First, it threatens the infection of the fetus, the development of its defects, miscarriage or premature birth. Secondly, in labor, the inflamed cervix is easily damaged, the risk of ruptures increases. That is why it is so important to treat the identified infection in time and be regularly monitored by a doctor.
Ectropion, which arose after a postponed abortion, can be an obstacle to natural childbirth. A coarse mucosal defect with pronounced scars often leads to the fact that in labor the cervix does not open. In this case, a cesarean section becomes the only way out. For the prevention of such complications should be treated before pregnancy planning.
The danger is also erosion, which arose after careless cauterization. Such a defect is often accompanied by the appearance of rough scars, which in turn interferes with the normal course of the generic process. This pathology can also be an indication for operative delivery.
What is cervical erosion
This is a pathological process, which is accompanied by the formation of small ulcers on the mucous membrane. Such a defect in the squamous epithelium of the vaginal zone, noticeable during an instrumental examination by a gynecologist, requires medical supervision. Among the risk factors, doctors distinguish the course of the inflammatory process of the reproductive system, the formation of polyps, cystic tumors. With proper treatment, erosion of the scars does not remain.
Causes of cervical erosion
The etiology of the pathological process remains unexplained. Gynecologists identify several theories, why every second woman of reproductive age is diagnosed with cervical erosion. The following are a number of potential reasons:
- The inflammatory process in the reproductive system. This pathology is accompanied by increased secretion of the glands of the cervical epithelium, inflammation of the ovaries or appendages, cystitis is progressing.
- Early sex life. There is a high likelihood of the accession of a secondary infection against the background of the not yet fully formed mucous membrane of the female genital organs (the formation process ends by 20–23 years).
- Mechanical damage. In this case, we are talking about earlier abortions, scraping, childbirth with ruptures, rough sexual intercourse, frequent change of sexual partners (vaginal dysbiosis).
- Genital infections. Erosion develops on the background of increased activity of Trichomonas, gonococci, HPV, ureaplasma, chlamydia, toxoplasma, candid, genital herpes.
- Endocrine disorders. A woman has a hormonal failure, the menstrual cycle is disturbed during the use of steroids, acute estrogen deficiency, age-related changes in the body, and dyshormonal disorders.
- Reducing the immune response of the female body. The weakening of immunity is associated with age-related features or becomes a consequence of the disease.
- Anatomical features of the reproductive system. A woman can be diagnosed with abnormal inversion of the mucous membrane of the lower part of the cervix (ectropion).
Gynecologists identify a number of provoking factors that precede the occurrence of the disease. Among those:
- frequent douching that violates the vaginal microflora,
- improper implantation of the contraceptive coil,
- overweight, obesity,
- previous surgery, such as the removal of polyps,
- the use of additional devices ("toys") during sexual contact,
- chronic diseases of the reproductive system, sluggish inflammatory processes.
Types of cervical erosion
Depending on the degree of damage to the epithelium, doctors identify a mild, moderate, severe degree of the disease. Given the stage and state of the pathological process, lead this classification:
- Congenital erosion. More often progresses in adolescence, disappears on its own without additional medical participation. Extremely rarely reborn into a malignant tumor. The causes of the disease remain unexplained, it is possible that laid in the period of fetal development (girls).
- True erosion. Under the influence of physiological and pathological factors, the epithelium is exfoliated, the site of inflammation is rapidly progressing. In the diagnosis of erosion has a rich red color, bleeds, causes discomfort and an attack of pain during sexual contact.
- Pseudo-erosion. The epithelium is replaced by a cylindrical epithelium, the boundaries of which are shifted beyond the external pharynx. Symptoms of pathology in the majority of clinical cases are absent, but doctors do not exclude pain during intercourse, blood discharge from the vagina.
It is important for each patient to know the causes of cervical erosion in women who have not given birth and who have given birth to women, in order to eliminate the risk of potential complications. It is important to study the symptoms of the disease in order to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis at the first manifestations and begin treatment:
- purulent-bloody discharge, which may appear after intercourse,
- pulling pains in the lower abdomen,
- blood discharge,
- burning, pain, itching when urinating,
- vaginal dryness and discomfort during sexual contact.
If you suspect erosion of the cervix, doctors prescribe a comprehensive examination in the hospital. It is very important to correctly differentiate the disease, to determine the cause of the occurrence. First of all, the gynecologist performs an instrumental examination, assesses the condition of the epithelium, visualizes the presence of ulcers. According to the results, the doctor prescribes laboratory tests:
- biopsy to exclude progressive oncology (cancer),
- examining a vaginal smear for the detection of pathogenic flora,
- laboratory blood tests
- PCR assays for infections,
- cytological examination
- seeding on the bacterial flora.
Treatment of cervical erosion
The approach to the health problem is complex. To eliminate the causes and treatment, the patient's age, the stage of the pathological process, the presence of secondary infections and inflammatory processes, chronic diseases of children born are taken into account. The scheme of complex therapy is determined based on the type of erosion:
- Congenital erosion does not cure. The patient is at risk, therefore, should be regularly monitored by a gynecologist. It is possible that such a problem will soon disappear on its own.
- True erosion and pseudo-erosion are treated simultaneously with diseases that provoke bleeding ulcers on the epithelium. Otherwise, there is no positive dynamics.
At the initial stage of the disease can be cured by medical methods based on the use of antiseptic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic antibiotics. The main thing - to identify and eliminate the cause of erosion. Conservative treatment regimens:
- In the presence of an inflammatory process, complex therapy should be aimed at exterminating the pathogenic pathogen (Candida, Chlamydia, Papilloma, Gonococcus, etc.). Otherwise, the positive dynamics is absent for a long time, and the health problem is only aggravated.
- Erosion in acute inflammation is treated with alternative methods at home. For example, the improvement is provided by the course setting of tampons with fish oil, sea buckthorn oil, syntomycin emulsion, Solcoseryl ointment. It is not excluded the local use of antibiotics in the form of an aerosol, for example, Levovinisol, Olazol.
- To strengthen the immune system requires the use of immunostimulants, vitamin-mineral complexes. Doctors also prescribe candles with probiotics, which restore the vaginal microflora.
- If the cause of erosion is of a fungal nature, the patient must use Metronidazole, Secnidazole, Azithromycin, Fluconazole and other antifungal drugs by mouth and vaginally.
- Dishormonal disorders can be eliminated with the help of oral contraceptives, individually selected by the attending physician. To restore hormonal balance, natural progesterone and estrogen analogues are recommended.
- A minor role is played by physiotherapeutic procedures, among which ionophoresis with drugs, microcurrent and ozone therapy, ultraviolet and shortwave ultraviolet therapy, and helium-neon laser are especially popular.
Drug treatment after identifying the main cause of the disease is not always very effective. Doctors recommend surgery, the main purpose of which is to destroy the cylindrical epithelium, to ensure rapid discharge and accelerate the regeneration of the injured epithelium. Types of invasive techniques:
- Diathermocoagulation. In fact, it is a cauterization of erosion by electric current. Duration of the procedure is 20–30 minutes; additional use of anesthesia is not required.
- Cryotherapy. This effect on the focus of pathology of low temperatures (liquid nitrogen), as a result of which the affected area is frozen.
- Laser coagulation. Cauterization of the affected areas with a laser. The rehabilitation period lasts 4–6 weeks, the risk of recurrent relapses is minimal.
- Chemical coagulation. This is the use of special drugs that, when released on the cylindrical epithelium, contribute to the early death.
- Diathermo-conization. Using a special loop to remove overgrown cylindrical epithelium. Rehabilitation takes up to 2 months.
If you do not promptly determine and eliminate the cause of the pathology, erosion increases in size, captures healthy tissue, and leads to irreversible consequences in the female reproductive system. Potential complications:
- deformation with the further formation of scars,
- diagnosed infertility
- joining a secondary infection,
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- the occurrence of cancer (development of cancer cells),
- inflammation of the appendages, ovaries.
What is uterine erosion?
Ectopia (erosion, pseudo-erosion) of the cervix is a violation of the whole structure, a defect in the mucous membranes of the vaginal cervix, which is manifested in women of any age and requires detailed examination and mandatory timely treatment, because erosion of the cervix may be the beginning of cancer of the epithelium.
Particular attention is given to patients with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) of a high risk of cancer (16, 18, 31, 33 types) infected with the herpes virus, in this case the risk of cervical cancer increases several times.
When viewed through a probe, erosion looks like an area of red color, located around the external pharynx, of various sizes from 3 mm to 2.5 cm. Pseudo-erosion can progress over months and years.
In addition to childbirth, there are many risk factors cervical erosion. For example, trauma after an abortion (or “vacuum”), infectious and viral diseases, herpes and papillomas. Quite often, the disease causes both disruptions in the hormonal balance of the background or neglected inflammatory processes.
- Genital infections
- Immunological diseases
- Hormonal disruptions
- Diseases of the kidneys and the urogenital system,
- Injuries and systemic infections.
- SPID (indirectly).
The genetic factor also plays an important role..
However, whatever the cause, the result is always the same: cracks begin to manifest themselves, which are overgrown with cells that have “migrated” from adjacent epithelial sites, for example, from the cervical canal. (In gynecological practice, this process is called ectopia).
Foreign cells that enter the cervix have other properties and can cause cancer.
Symptoms of not giving birth
В основной массе случаев, эрозия шейки матки проходит в «тихом режиме». In other words, the symptoms do not crawl out, and the diagnosis is established when examined by a gynecologist.
But it also happens that the patients themselves turn to the gynecologist with a complaint of bleeding that occurs during a period far from the menstrual cycle. Often after intercourse.
Women note pain during sex, purulent masses and bloody smears. The reason for this is the inflammatory process that takes place inside the uterus and surrounding tissues.
- Sleep disturbance,
- Failure of the menstrual cycle
- Iron deficiency in the body due to blood loss,
- Change of mental and emotional state
- Panic attacks,
- Tremor of limbs
- Lower abdominal pain
- Digestive problems
- Dreadful dreams.
What is dangerous pathology?
A prolonged and uncontrollable inflammatory process leads to violation of the functions of the whole organism. A systemic infection may begin, which will infect healthy organs through the bloodstream.
Moreover, such violations will cause the hormonal system to malfunction and the background to shift towards catabolic processes.
The level of cortisol, which is a stress hormone that destroys the tissues of internal organs and affects the psycho-emotional state, increases. A woman always thinks about blood, which creates complexes and fear before sexual intercourse.
Do I need to treat?
The answer is unequivocal - yes. Inflammatory processes not only disrupt the body, but also takes power from the body, which is trying to get rid of the disease and cure the inflammatory process.
It is desirable to do this after pregnancy, because not all methods can cure the disease without a trace or with minimal changes, and the scar will cause problems during pregnancy and childbirth. If the treatment method does not foresee the formation of a scar, it can be treated at any stage, even during pregnancy.
If inside the cervix already contains foreign cells, then they themselves will not leave, but rather will only multiply.
Classical methods of treatment of cervical erosion imply the removal of the area where erosion develops.. This is done with the help of physiotherapy. Widespread method of electrophoresis, shock and cryo-therapy, vibro-massage and UV radiation.
The main contribution to the fight against the disease is made by antibiotics, which destroy not only exogenous cells, but also their own. The longer the affected area in the body, the less the body fights with it, taking it for its own tissue.
The surgical treatment method exhibits an entire high percentage of efficacy and a low percentage of relapse and complications, but leaves postoperative traces (scars).
Why is there a danger?
It is the scars after cauterization that are the main problem in the treatment of cervical erosion in nulliparous patients, since they can cause major problems during pregnancy and childbirth.
For this reason, many women do not pay enough attention to this problem, and every year the situation is getting worse.. In some cases, practicing laser therapy or the so-called radio wave degradation - these methods are very effective, but require an experienced doctor and are used in advanced medical clinics.
The process involves a complex combination of polybasic acids that aggressively attack foreign organisms and cause minimal damage to their own cells.
Advantages of chemofixation
The main advantage of chemofixation is that the wound after cauterization is healed without scarring, which means that you can be treated before pregnancy.
It is also important that the treatment of the disease in this way is completely painless and does not require specialized equipment and the participation of surgeons. The cauterization area heals completely in three to four weeks, but after a few days after the treatment is completed, you can return to your normal lifestyle: having sex, visiting public institutions (swimming pool, bath).
As a rule, you need several sessions for complete cure.
To consolidate the result of treatment, to avoid complications, to eliminate the chance of recurrence, you need to follow some instructions of the doctor and be observed with him for half a year..
No matter how the erosion was eliminated, you can have sex no earlier than 6-7 weeks after the completion of the operation. Since all organisms are different, a more precise period needs to be clarified with the gynecologist.
It is necessary to postpone visiting saunas, baths, not to swim in open reservoirs, so as not to carry the infection. Physical and aerobic exercise should be performed without fanaticism and only with the permission of the doctor..
Folk remedies (tampons, lotions) have extremely dubious effectiveness and you should not rely on them in the treatment of the disease. Worse from them will not, but better too.
In the first 10-20 days, brownish or orange vaginal discharge is possible. This is nothing but the decay products of foreign tissue that are excreted from the body. This is a normal process that speaks of improving the condition.
The main preventive measures involve gynecological diagnosis several times a year even in the absence of obvious signs of the disease.. As mentioned above, people apply for help at the extreme stages, when a significant area of uterine tissue is affected.
It is also important to follow a diet in order to eliminate the chance of growth of cancer cells, due to the consumption of carcinogens. Margarine and trans fats should be excluded from the food (baked goods, sweets, ice cream, etc.), eat less fried and fatty.
Control hormones, because it is a violation of its balance that creates favorable conditions for the progression of the disease.
It is not necessary to lead a casual sex life, not only because of the risk of contracting an STD, but also because of the fact that the affected uterus is more susceptible to diseases and alien organisms.
Do not use peptides and tanning agents containing melonotan-2. This substance is extremely dangerous for immunity and for health in general.
Observe the daily regimen, set aside 6-7 hours for sleep, because it is in a dream that the body regains its strength and all damaged areas, and it is the lack of sleep that affects the health no worse than ecology and harmful nutrition.
For hygienic procedures, you should not use ordinary water, because the bacteria that are contained there are not terrible for a healthy person, but can strike a blow to the immune system of a woman suffering from erosion.
Causes of cervical erosion
Among the causes of cervical erosion in nonpartum women are the most common:
- Infections that could penetrate the vagina through unprotected intercourse. Among these infections can be identified those that are formed by ureaplasma, chlamydia, mycoplasma, as well as gonorrhea, syphilis. To confirm or refute this assumption, a woman must pass a blood test for infection.
- Lesions of the pelvic organs of the virus, in particular, it can be herpes. As well as human papilloma virus.
Important! If time does not eliminate erosion of the cervix, it increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Symptoms of cervical erosion
Above it was already said that in most clinical cases, cervical erosion does not bother a woman who has not given birth. And to determine that this neoplasm takes place can only be a gynecologist.
But, nevertheless, there are some common signs of the disease, which may indicate that a woman has a cervical erosion:
- Pain during or after intercourse,
- Periodic vaginal discharge mixed with blood, or brown discharge,
- Abundant leucorrhea from the vagina, which does not stop women,
Again, it is worth noting that the erosion of the cervix is invisible. This is indeed a very dangerous disease, since erosion can result in cervical cancer.
How to diagnose cervical erosion?
To confirm or refute cervical erosion, it is necessary, first of all, to consult a gynecologist.
Next, the doctor must conduct a standard gynecological examination on the chair. It is possible to determine whether erosion is possible only with the help of a colposcope device (the diagnostic method is called colposcopy).
After that, a smear is taken from the patient's vagina, which will allow to examine the vaginal flora for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. A woman will definitely need to undergo a blood test for infection.
If, on examination, a gynecologist accurately determined the presence of cervical erosion, then in this case, it will be necessary to perform a biopsy of this site. What does it mean? The doctor will take a small piece of erosion for a cytoligic study on cancer cells.
Gynecological examination is absolutely painless procedure. The only thing is that if you take a piece of erosive area for cytology, then the next day you can discharge blood from the vagina.
The need to treat cervical erosion
Why is there an urgent need to treat cervical erosion? First, there is a huge risk that the epithelium that is located on the cervix may, over a short period of time, grow into a flat epithelium. What does this mean and why is it undesirable?
Because the degeneration of epithelial tissue almost always ends with scarring. As a result, the cervix becomes less elastic. Later, if a woman decides to give birth, then this factor can significantly complicate the process of pregnancy and further birth.
If a woman does not cure erosion, then asphyxia can begin in the fetus during passage through the cervix. The reason - inelastic cervix.
Also, during labor, a woman may injure one of the sections of the vagina and cervix. The most terrible consequence during pregnancy is that a woman can rupture the cervical tissue in the second, third trimester, which will lead to the death of the fetus and spontaneous miscarriage.
The article has repeatedly mentioned that cervical erosion can develop into a malignant tumor. Medical statistics is really amazing - today, for every 5th patient, erosion becomes a malignant neoplasm.
How to treat erosion nulliparous?
So how do you treat erosion to unborn women?
It is forbidden to treat cervical erosion by cauterization, as this can lead to infertility. If you have not given birth, then immediately abandon methods such as cryodestruction (cauterization with liquid nitrogen), as well as electrical destruction — cauterization with current.
Cauterization is dangerous because a woman can start to form scars on the cervix, the menstrual cycle is broken, various inflammatory processes can be exacerbated, and there is also a high risk of complete destruction of healthy cells and good epithelium.
The most optimal method of treatment is a pinpoint chemical effect on unhealthy cells with drugs such as vagostil, solkovagin, and also vulnostimulin.
Causes of erosion in girls giving birth
The most common causes of cervical erosion in utero patients are hormonal imbalances and inflammation in the genital area. If you normalize the body and reproductive organs, the damaged epithelium can recover on its own.
In addition to inflammation and hormonal disruptions, the occurrence of erosion is provoked by:
- sexually transmitted infections
- injuries during sexual intercourse,
- abortions, miscarriages,
- early sex life
- mismatched contraception
- violation of the regulation cycle,
- endocrine diseases
- weak immunity.
If, in the presence of erosion, the unborn woman does not experience painful symptoms, they do not resort to treatment. Very often, signs of erosive damage disappear after the baby is born. Visits to the doctor in such cases are not canceled, as the identified disease can return at any time. Recurrences occur frequently. In order to avoid complications, visit a gynecologist 1-2 happy per year.
Hidden and overt symptoms
Hazardous conditions include large erosion in birthless. Such a pathology is accompanied by apparent symptomatics, that is, it is impossible not to notice the problem. The menstrual cycle is lost, thick discharge and menstruation with an unpleasant smell are observed, pains and pains in the lower abdomen are regularly felt.
Hidden form of erosion in nulliparous girls also has its signs. It is difficult to recognize them, but with careful attention to oneself and atypical manifestations of deviation can be detected. Pay attention to any changes in the body: the appearance of abundant whiter, an increase in the duration of menstruation, nagging pain in the lower abdomen. If these conditions have not previously been noted and become regular, go to the doctor.
When conservative treatment of erosion in non-deliverers is ineffective, surgery is prescribed. It is a normal burn, through which damaged tissue is simply removed. The only difference is in the way of impact. Before birth, radio waves, laser radiation, and liquid nitrogen are used. The use of the diathermocoagulation method (cauterization with electric current) is contraindicated, since later a woman may have problems with childbirth and conception.
Treatment of erosion allows you to isolate and eliminate the damaged parts of the epithelium, but during the procedures and healthy cells may suffer. Radical therapy leads to disruptions of the menstrual cycle and exacerbations of chronic diseases. The greatest danger of treating erosion is a possible splicing of the canal and coarse scars. Atresia of the cervical canal (splicing) often leads to infertility, and the presence of scars and scars has a negative effect on the structure of tissues. At birth, loss of elasticity causes complications in the form of tears.
In addition, scarring often causes spontaneous opening of the uterus during pregnancy. This can trigger a miscarriage.
Congenital ectopia is not considered a pathology. According to experts, this is one of the stages of the formation of genitals. Therefore, erosion of the cervix in virgins is not treated. The same approach is often practiced in relation to women who have given birth. Due to the high risk of complications and serious consequences, doctors do not recommend therapeutic interventions until the birth of the first child. But such decisions are made only after a thorough examination. There are critical cases where non-intervention can be dangerous to the patient’s health and life.
To avoid becoming a victim of cancer, you need to respond to all changes in the body in a timely manner.. Take a few hours to visit a gynecologist, perhaps it will save you from problems with women's health in the future. The number of germ cells is limited and no one can cure female infertility caused by their deficiency.
How often and who arise
It is believed that cervical erosion may develop only in women who have given birth. Allegedly, a girl who has no children is protected from this problem.
The interesting thing is that most women who have not given birth know about their diagnosis only by examination, as the disease is not accompanied by pain.
However, most cases of the disease are caused by infections, so that the pathology is manifested by a variety of vaginal discharge.
As mentioned above, about half of women suffer from erosion. This number includes:
- giving birth to women
- ageless childless ladies
- young childless
- virgins of all ages.
If you leave only the birthless, it turns out that every third girl has erosion.
From what and why appears
The disease in question has no age range.. Both a newborn girl and an old woman can suffer from it.
Please note that all they are divided into congenital and acquired categories.
Why the formation of ectopia and cervical erosion:
Girls under 14
In small patients, traumatic causes can be almost completely eliminated., as they are characteristic of women who have undergone difficult childbirth or not very successful abortion.
Basically the disease occurs for congenital reasons, the most popular of which is cylindrical ectopia.
This happens even in the womb, when the cervix and vagina are still completely closed by a cylindrical epithelium.
After replacing it with a flat epithelium, under the action of hormones, the area in question can be raised to the limits of the external pharynx.
To infectious causes cervical erosion in unborn girls include:
- violation of the microflora of the vagina, and, as a consequence, hormonal dysfunction,
- chronic non-gynecological diseases,
- weakening of immunity due to frequent diseases and stress states.
In most cases, treatment is not required.. It often happens that until puberty, nothing indicates a disease.
Modern girls aged 14 and older can already begin to have an active sex life. Because of this, the range of causes of erosion increases significantly.
Congenital causes that also apply to younger girls include:
- the onset of sexual activity at the time when the genitals are not yet fully formed,
- гормональный дисбаланс из-за ускоренного развития половой системы,
- genital infectious diseases (for example, chlamydia and trichomoniasis),
- abortions (unfortunately, these days are not uncommon),
- transferred operations.
If there are signs of erosion, then you need to show the girl to the gynecologist. Sometimes medical intervention is required, otherwise there may be problems with the birth of a child in the future.
If the girl is a virgin, the range of causes is significantly narrowed, and the danger of erosion becomes less.
Childless in reproductive age
In women older than 18 years sex life is usually in full swing. But health is not the same as that of a teenager.
Therefore, appeals to the gynecologist are becoming more frequent, therapeutic interventions in the genital area are also becoming more frequent.
This adds a few more points to the causes of erosion.:
- traumatic injury during rough or non-standard sexual intercourse (for example, rape, use of "toys"),
- frequent abortions (although sometimes one is enough)
- use of oral contraceptives based on hormonal effects.
Also in this age category may change the acidity of the vagina in the alkaline side. Because of this, the squamous epithelium is replaced by a cylindrical one.
This can cause erosion by itself, and can also provide a favorable environment for infections causing inflammatory processes. The result is the same - cervical erosion.
If there were abortions
This applies in most cases to women over 20 yearsHowever, it is also found in adolescents.
This is a rather insidious and unpredictable type of erosion, it should be examined and, if necessary, treated.
The reasons for this erosion:
- organ damage by medical instruments,
- infections that are often activated after an abortion,
- late return of the uterus to its original state.
Treat such erosion cauterization or surgery, but only after anti-inflammatory therapy.
When to treat
Doctors disagree on this issue.. Some insist on treatment, considering erosion as a precancerous condition, others believe that the disease is harmless, and it is not worthwhile to expose a woman to an extra time.
In this case, you just need to monitor the progress of the disease. If the results show some rebirth and strong inflammatory processes, then treatment is necessary.
It may be:
- surgical (rarely used)
- by cauterization (more humane way, compared with surgery),
- medicamentous (candles, whose task is to relieve inflammation).
note that any therapy begins with the use of candles. The most popular among them is “Hexicon”, as well as any preparations with sea buckthorn oil.
If you are planning a child, then it is better to treat erosion. This will help avoid complications and difficult delivery.
Is it possible to cauterize erosion to the infants:
Medicine is not yet known drugs that can prevent the development of this disease.
However, compliance with a set of rules may protect women from cervical erosion:
- no chance sexual intercourse (if you really want it, then at least use a condom),
- treat infections of the reproductive system in time,
- observe personal hygiene,
- visit the gynecologist at least twice a year, even if there are no complaints of well-being.
Cervical erosion is very common among patients of all age groups.
It gives rare consequences only in rare cases.however, in case of severe inflammations, and also if there are plans to have a baby, the disease is better to cure.
Take care of your health, it is given only once in a lifetime!
Causes, manifestation and diagnosis of erosion
The development of the disease in women who have not given birth contribute to:
- mechanical damage to the epithelial mucosa,
- the presence of an intrauterine device,
- sex with different partners,
- the presence of genital infections (herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea),
- hormonal imbalance
- weak immunity.
As it is known, cervical erosion is painless and asymptomatic. How to recognize such a dangerous disease in time? - The main signs of anxiety should be pain and heavy bleeding-brown discharge after sexual contact, frequent exacerbation of candidiasis (thrush). For women who have not given birth, it is important to regularly visit a gynecologist.
In addition to the gynecological examination, it is possible to diagnose the disease using:
- extended colposcopy (optical inspection),
- cytological study of the epithelium (PAP test, oncocytology),
- tests for flora and bacteriological crops.
To start one of the methods of treatment is possible only after a histological examination of the affected tissues in order to exclude cancer tumors. Recommended methods of cauterization of erosions to unborn women:
- Chemical coagulants (drugs solkovagin, vagotyl).
An effective method of dealing with violation of the cervical epithelium in the early stages of the disease. The substance penetrates the mucous membrane of the affected tissue by 2.5 mm, exerting a mild destructive effect on erosion. The procedure should be performed using a colposcope in order not to touch the healthy epithelium of the cervix. The only drawback of chemical coagulants is re-burning (depending on the extent of the lesion).
It is actively used for the treatment of erosion in non-giving women, it does not leave scars. The epithelial mucosa is treated with liquid nitrogen under the influence of low temperatures. After the procedure, the patient may be disturbed by heavy discharge, but they will stop in a few days. Cryodestruction is ineffective with the defeat of the epithelium area of more than three cm.
- Laser coagulation.
The use of laser therapy in the treatment of cervical erosion in women who have not given birth is considered one of the safest methods. After its use, there is no likelihood of complications and side effects.
One of the modern methods of treating the erosion of young women is chemofixation. It is a special application of the drug and does not require the use of equipment. After the procedure, the wound is tightened without scar formation. Characteristic features of chemo-fixation - efficiency, painlessness and speed. After the procedure, the patient feels a pulling pain in the lower abdomen, but after a few hours it will disappear.
In the period of healing of the mucous membrane of the epithelium, you should observe personal hygiene, refrain from sex, avoid hypothermia and overheating, do not drink alcohol. Compliance with the recommendations of the attending physician and a routine inspection allows you to achieve the desired result in treatment.
In some cases, the disease does not require the use of cautery methods. This is directly related to the cause of erosion, in this case hormonal imbalance. As a treatment, hormone therapy is shown, which contributes to the rapid tightening of erosion without surgery.
However, if erosion is caused by serious infections, the treatment regimen will depend on the type of pathogenic pathogens. Definitely, the patient should undergo a course of antibiotics. Each type of infection requires the additional use of antifungal drugs. For example, for thrush (candidiasis), fluconazole and clotrimazole are prescribed.
Erosion of the cervix in unborn women requires the choice of effective, painless, and, most importantly, safe methods of therapy to eliminate problems with childbirth and childbirth in the future.