Hygiene

Phases of the menstrual cycle in women

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Nature is designed so that every month the female body is ready for a possible pregnancy. What is a sign? A certain phase of menstruation, and to know more precisely the ovulation period, a woman can be helped by keeping her own calendar, where she records the menstrual cycle. Between critical days, there are other changes associated with reproductive function, so each woman needs to know the rate of the cycle, listen to the signals, so as not to miss the beginning of the development of pathology and not deprive themselves of the joy of motherhood.

What is the menstrual cycle

Approximately at regular intervals, physiological changes occur in the female genital organs. The beginning of one menstruation (the appearance of discharge) and the entire period before the start of the next one — this is what the cycle of menstruation is for women. This phenomenon got its name due to the Latin language, in translation from which “mensis” means “month”. Spotting is a liquid, more precisely, a mixture of blood, desquamated epithelium of the uterine mucosa, clear mucus, so the color can vary from bright red to brown.

Do I need to know the duration of the cycle

If health care is on the list of priorities for an excellent representative of any age, then there is no doubt: you need to know the individual menstruation schedule. Only in this way will it be possible to identify in time violations of the function of the ovaries, uterine lining or the onset of pregnancy. Duration, together with the frequency, volume of blood discharge included in the list of main characteristics, which is determined by normal menstruation.

When does it start

The period of puberty in each girl comes individually, in most cases, menarche occurs at the age of 11-13 years. Further, when the menstruation schedule is stabilized, it will be possible to judge about the onset of menses by bleeding. From now on, at any time of the day, you should record the beginning of a new period and not forget to mark the first day in the menstrual calendar.

Gynecology is open almost all the secrets of the functioning of the female reproductive system. The work of all the bodies included in it is subject to a certain rhythm, which is conventionally divided into three phases. For the full period of menstruation in the body of a woman, the egg matures, then a phase occurs when she is ready for fertilization. If conception did not occur, then the corpus luteum is formed, the level of progesterone hormone falls, rejection of the epithelial layer of the uterus - the phase ends.

Follicular

The beginning of this phase coincides with the onset of critical days, and the follicular phase lasts for almost two weeks. During this time, follicles grow in the ovaries, they release hormones estrogens into the bloodstream, the latter stimulate the growth of the endometrium (uterine mucosa). All actions of the reproductive system in this phase are aimed at the maturation of the egg and the creation of optimal conditions for its fertilization.

Ovulatory

The shortest of all selected phases of the cycle. With a menstruation duration of 28 days, there is only 3 ovulation. Under the action of hormones, a mature egg is formed from a mature follicle. For a woman who wants to get pregnant, these few days are the only chance to conceive. The onset of the ovulatory phase makes itself felt with small painful sensations in the lower abdomen. If fertilization of the egg has occurred, then it is attached to the lining of the uterus. Otherwise, the body's work is aimed at getting rid of the corpus luteum.

Luteal

Ovulation occurs, but does not end with pregnancy - this means that the middle of the cycle or the third phase has arrived. The active production of hormones progesterone, estrogen leads to the emergence of a complex of symptoms known as PMS (premenstrual syndrome). Throughout the luteal phase, and this is from 11 to 16 days, the woman's breasts may swell, the mood may change, the appetite will increase, and the body sends a signal to the uterus that it is necessary to get rid of unnecessary endometrium. This completes one menstrual period, and another comes to replace it with bleeding.

What cycle of menstruation is considered normal

Medical science does not give a clear answer. If we take into account the factor of the duration of the menstrual period, then the concept of the norm fits the duration from 21 days to 35. The average indicator of the normal cycle is 28 days. Menstruation (bleeding) lasts 2-6 days, while the amount of blood lost does not exceed 80 ml. Some regularity can be traced to the fact that the residents of the southern regions have a shorter cycle than those of women who live in northern latitudes.

How to calculate the monthly cycle

To determine the time interval from the first day of menstruation to the last, you should have a calendar. For convenience, you can choose a paper version or application online, then you will not have to keep all the data in your head and there will be no danger of forgetting something. Noting the dates in the menstrual calendar, it turns out to calculate the duration of the interval. The middle of the cycle can be determined using an ovulation test or measure the basal body temperature (enter a thermometer into the rectum after waking up). For a reliable calculation you need to take into account the data of 4 periods in a row.

Menstruation cycle calendar

For planning a pregnancy, in taking care of their own health, women should keep a calendar regularly. A paper insert in the business diary, an online application is a choice based on convenience, but you should definitely note the days of menstruation, make notes in the table, then determine the duration, calculating the interval: from the first day of the previous menstruation to the first day of the next. The calendar helps to track the regularity, the phases of the cycle in women, to determine the period of ovulation or “dangerous days”, if you do not want to get pregnant.

Why the monthly cycle changes every month

The regularity of the cycle indicates the good state of the reproductive system, the general well-being of the woman. However, for a number of reasons, deviations may occur that lead to pathology. Physiological, emotional state, difficult situations - all this affects the appearance of irregular periods. The calendar system also leads to a failure in the calculations, when one month in a year is shorter than another, therefore, with an average cycle time, the dates of the onset of menstruation in the calendar will be different.

When and why the cycle is broken

The normal cycle of menstruation is more common among women who have given birth. Irregular menstrual periods are characteristic for girls, because it takes one to two years to produce a normal physiological process. Before the onset of menopause, or in violation of hormonal levels, the menstrual schedule also fails, which changes. For the first menstruation is characterized by a short cycle, with hormonal failure or menopause - the maximum or long break.

Types of violations

The regular menstrual schedule for each woman is different, therefore, the female cycle should be determined independently. If there are noticeable deviations, when the delay of the menstruation occurs or the discharge has a sharp smell, a more saturated color, you should consult a doctor. Important symptoms that indicate irregularities are the uncharacteristic volume of discharge, the appearance of painful sensations not only at half of the menstrual period, but also at the stage of maturation of the follicle or in the second half of the cycle.

With cycle irregularities and associated symptoms, it is customary to talk about the following possible violations:

  • polymenorrhea (prolonged uterine bleeding, cycle schedule is defined as a gap of less than 21 days),
  • hypermenorrhea (heavy menstrual bleeding),
  • hypomenorrhea (scant bleeding, reduced production of sex hormones),
  • oligomenorrhea (the length of menstruation does not exceed 2 days),
  • amenorrhea (absence of critical days for more than six months),
  • metrorrhagia (atypical bleeding, in which there is no endometrial gland rejection),
  • algomenorrhea (menstruation, which are accompanied by strong painful sensations).

Treatment of menstrual disorders

The first thing that should be taken as a rule in case of suspected violation: self-treatment is absolutely unacceptable! The danger to life, if the menstrual cycle in women failed, is very high, so you should contact a gynecologist for help, you may need to consult an endocrinologist, a neurologist, a therapist, an oncologist. A reasonable approach to treatment, when the cycle is restored, the pituitary hormones are properly produced and the secretory phases work - this is a chance for happy motherhood or a way to resist the development of diseases of the reproductive system.

To determine the nature of the disorder, to choose an effective treatment regimen, the woman will have to undergo an examination, make an ultrasound, donate blood, and during a gynecological examination, the doctor will take a smear. When the influence of external factors is eliminated, the specialist, based on the diagnosis, will offer the patient a treatment regimen, choosing one or several types of therapy:

  • Surgical treatment (endometrial ablation, curettage of the uterus, removal of organs).
  • Hormone therapy. Involves the use of combined oral contraceptives, in addition, Gonadoliberin or gestagen agonists are prescribed, contributes to the establishment of a two-phase cycle, in which ovulation is impossible.
  • Hemostatic therapy. It is performed with bleeding, helping to stabilize the functions of the reproductive system and the whole body.
  • Non-hormonal therapy. Preparations based on vegetable complexes, minerals, and useful acids are prescribed to normalize the menstrual schedule. In addition, nutritional supplements are designed to maintain the reproductive system during the phase of the corpus luteum, ovulation, fertilization and gradual rejection of the endometrium or to support hormonal balance.

Main phases of the cycle

Every month, with a regular cycle in the woman's body, three alternate phases of the menstrual cycle occur. They are characterized by logical consistency and serve one big goal - to create favorable conditions for the fertilization of the egg and the continuation of the genus. The menstrual cycle is divided into three main phases:

  • Follicular (first phase),
  • Ovulation (second phase),
  • Luteal (third phase).

These stages perform functions based on their name. The basis of these phases is hormonal regulation, which contributes to the advancement of the process and controls its outcome. The beginning of the menstrual cycle is the beginning of the very first phase - the follicular, it is she who gives start to such an important process as the formation and maturation of the egg.

The first is the follicular phase

The initial phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by an intensive growth of follicles and the formation of an egg in them. The first day of menstruation gives a start to the new follicular phase of the cycle and the intensive production of follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen begins. During this period, follicles grow, which will later become the container and place of maturation of the egg.

Estrogen provides support to the follicles and lasts about 7 days, until one of the follicular vesicles reaches the desired parameters for the maturation of the egg in it. Further growth focuses only on the egg, and the “extra” follicles cease to function. A high concentration of estrogen gives the signal to start producing luteinizing hormone, which, in turn, is preparing for future ovulation. The duration of the first phase is individual for each woman, but it should not exceed 20 days.

The second phase is ovulation.

The second phase of the menstrual cycle is rather short, but at the same time very significant. Ovulation is an achievement for the sake of which the menstrual cycle itself exists. It is designed for the possibility of fertilization and the realization of the main purpose of the woman - procreation. The ability and ability to fertilize is only possible within 48 hours, and sometimes less. During this short period of 2 days, the reproductive system of the woman faces a crucial task, and if fertilization does not occur, the egg cell dies.

Increased concentration of luteinizing hormone contributes to enhanced maturation and subsequent release of the egg from the follicle. Under its action, important processes occur that ensure the preparation of the walls of the endometrium. When the egg reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, the follicular vesicle is ruptured and a full egg is released into the fallopian tube to merge with the sperm cell. Intense growth of the corpus luteum begins in the cavity of the ruptured follicle, which, in turn, leads to intensive production of progesterone and provides favorable conditions for successful fertilization and implantation of the fertilized ovum into the uterine wall. The next cycle can have 2 outcomes of events, depending on whether fertilization has occurred or not.

The third phase - luteal

The development of the third phase of the menstrual cycle can take place in two scenarios: with a fertilized egg or if fertilization has not occurred. At this time, special attention is paid to the resulting yellow body. It, in case of successful conception, leads to the active production of lutein hormone, which supports and nourishes the fertilized egg before the formation of the placenta. Because of the importance of the purpose of this hormone, the third phase and has its characteristic name - lutein. In conjunction with lutein hormone, active production of progesterone, which is also actively involved in supporting the ovum, continues during this period. Ultimately, a harmonious and mutually beneficial production of female hormones provides a full preparation for fertilization, fusion, and the subsequent nourishment and protection of an already fertilized fertilized egg.

If fertilization does not happen, the corpus luteum ceases to develop and atrophy. The prepared loosened mucous membrane of the uterus and the dead egg are rejected and go out in the form of menstrual bleeding, which, in turn, means the beginning of a new, first phase and the whole described process is repeated anew.

Cycle phases by day

The phases of the menstrual cycle by days are conventionally divided into 3 intervals. The first and third phases are considered the longest. It is interesting that the follicular and ovulation phases have an individual and unrecorded duration, and the luteal phase always corresponds to a duration of 2 weeks or 14 days. As many know, the whole menstrual cycle can last from 20 to 35 days, and this will be considered the norm. Menstrual bleeding is also individual in nature, but necessary for every lady.

To understand what happens when and during these +/- 28 days, it is necessary to consider the duration of each specific phase.

  1. Follicular phase - the period from the beginning of menstruation to full readiness for the release of the egg from the follicle (ovulation). Depending on the characteristics of the body, it can last from 7 to 20 days. At the beginning of this phase, the woman experiences malaise and discomfort in the lumbar region and lower abdomen. Later, the forces are restored and the unpleasant symptoms subside.
  2. Ovulation - the time of readiness of the egg for fertilization. This phase is the shortest and most important. The ability of the egg to merge with sperm and fertilization lasts from 20 to 48 hours, which is also purely individual and depends on many factors. Some women experience ovulation and even observe characteristic discharge on their underwear.
  3. Luteal phase. Regardless of whether fertilization has occurred or not, this phase has been going on for the last 14 days. If the pregnancy has not come, then it will end and, therefore, the beginning of a new cycle will be monthly bleeding. During this period, many women suffer from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and do not experience the most pleasant physical and psychological symptoms and sensations in their bodies. If, nevertheless, the menstrual cycle has fulfilled its intended purpose, and fertilization has taken place, then the pregnancy begins and the further actions of the female hormones will bear an emphasis on the growth, nutrition and development of the fetus.

What can affect the cycle offset?

The considered phases of menstruation are a very clear and fragile mechanism, which can be disrupted due to a variety of factors. The main associates of these phases are hormones, which mutually beneficially replace each other in order to accomplish a single goal - conception and birth of a child. Violation of the production of any of the hormones will result in the breaking of a consistent chain and will affect the final outcome and the duration of the cycle.

Possible reasons for the shift of the phases of the menstrual cycle:

  • Psychological disorders and stresses
  • Воздействие экологии и других факторов внешней среды,
  • Возраст (половое созревание или период менопаузы),
  • Заболевания репродуктивной системы и органов малого таза,
  • Операции или травмы на репродуктивных органах,
  • Образ жизни (физические нагрузки и вредные привычки),
  • Приём гормональных контрацептивов или других сильных медикаментов.

Each female body is individual, and in its own way susceptible to various factors that can break the usual cycle. For convenience, it is recommended to keep the menstrual calendar or diary, mark the beginning and end of menstruation, well-being, associated symptoms.

The phases of the monthly cycles are a consistent and constant phenomenon that each woman faces. The order of these phases is firmly established, but their duration may vary depending on the characteristics of the organism and external factors. Knowing all three phases of her menstrual cycle, a woman can easily calculate a favorable period for conception or when it is worth waiting for premenstrual syndrome.

Periods (phases) of the menstrual cycle

In each menstrual cycle, the woman's body prepares for pregnancy. The menstrual cycle can be divided into several periods (phases).

Most often, the duration of the menstrual cycle is 28 calendar days. However, for each woman she is strictly individual, it is normal if she keeps within the interval from 21 to 35 days. The main factor is its constancy throughout the reproductive period, the tolerance is not more than 3 days. An important indicator is also the amount of discharge and the woman's well-being during this period. Any changes in the normal rhythm, signs of malaise are the reason for seeking medical attention, as they may well become the first signs of the disease.

Menstrual period of the cycle

The functioning of the female reproductive system is subject to four main periods. The first one is menstrual, it is the most painful, it is at this time that there is bloody discharge. Its normal duration is 3 to 6 days. At this stage, the rejection and expulsion of the inner lining of the uterus - the endometrium, together with the unfertilized egg cell occurs. Thus, the first day of bleeding is the beginning of the menstrual cycle.

Cycle period

This is followed by a follicular period, characterized by the termination of the discharge. At this time, begins the enhanced synthesis of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones that affect the ovaries. Chief among them is the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which causes intense growth and development of several follicles. The ovaries, in turn, produce the sex hormone estrogen, its value is to stimulate endometrial renewal and prepare the uterus to accept the egg. This stage lasts about two weeks and ends with the release of hormones into the bloodstream that suppress FSH activity.

There comes a phase of ovulation, that is, the release of a ripe egg from the follicle. As a rule, it is the largest of them. This contributes to a sharp increase in the level of luteinizing hormone (LH). The egg cell enters the lumen of the fallopian tube and begins its movement towards the uterus, in parallel waiting for fertilization. The duration of her life does not exceed two days, therefore, in order to increase the probability of conception, it is necessary that the semen is already in the fallopian tube. In the uterus at this time, the process of preparing the epithelial layer continues.

Luteinizing cycle period

The final period of the menstrual cycle is luteinizing. Its duration, as a rule, does not exceed 16 days. At this time, in place of the follicle that left the egg, a special temporary gland is formed - the corpus luteum. It produces progesterone, designed to increase the sensitivity of the endometrium, in order to facilitate the introduction of a fertilized egg into the uterine wall. If implantation does not occur, the corpus luteum regresses and progesterone levels drop dramatically. This causes destruction and subsequent rejection of the epithelial layer, the cycle closes.

Phases of the menstrual cycle

The first phase (follicular, or egg development)

Day 1-5. Menstruation. Typically, menstruation lasts from 2 to 7 days, an average of 5 days. In this phase, the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) is rejected, and menstruation begins. Contractions of the uterus at this point may be accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen. For some women, menstruation is short (for example, 2 days), while for others it can last for 7 days. Bleeding can be profuse and obscene.

In the first half of the menstrual cycle, the follicle grows in the ovary, where the egg cell develops and matures, which then leaves the ovary (ovulation). This phase lasts about 7-21 days, which depends on many factors.

Day 14. The release of the egg. Ovulation usually occurs from the 7th to the 21st day of the cycle, most often in the middle of the menstrual cycle (approximately on the 14th day of the 28-day cycle). After leaving the ovary, the matured egg cell moves to the uterus through the fallopian tubes.

Second phase (formation of the corpus luteum)

Day 15-28. Thickening of the uterine lining. After ovulation, the bursting follicle is converted into the corpus luteum, which produces the hormone progesterone.

The first phase of the menstrual cycle is called menstrual

What should you know about menstruation?

Its duration is approximately 3-7 days.

  1. Spotting from the vagina.
  2. Breast augmentation.
  3. Pain in the abdomen.
  4. Irritability.
  5. Pain in the lumbar region.
  6. Mood variability.
  7. Nausea, and sometimes vomiting.
  8. Headaches.

Not necessarily all of the above signs will be accompanied by "critical" days. In many girls, they pass calmly, and the only thing that indicates menstruation is the presence of uterine bleeding.

The menstrual cycle begins from the day on which spotting appeared from the genitals. During it there is a rejection of the old endometrium.

Uterine hemorrhages indicate that the pregnancy in the previous cycle has not occurred.

At the same time, the ovaries begin to develop follicles. So called bubbles filled with liquid. Each of them contains one egg. Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone, they begin to mature.

What happens during the second, follicular (proliferative) phase of the cycle?

After the end of menstruation, the female body begins to prepare for the possible conception of the baby. All processes occurring during this period are called follicle-stimulating hormone - which, in turn, is produced by the pituitary gland.

Thus, FSH has a profound effect on the level of estrogen in the blood. Starting from the 1st day of menstruation, it rapidly grows upwards. Because of this, the endometrium that has grown in a new cycle is saturated with blood and various nutrients. This is necessary so that in case of successful conception, the fertilized egg could receive in the uterus everything that it needs for further growth and development.

Immediately after the end of the menstrual period, one follicle “overtakes” its companions in its development, as a result of which the latter stop growing and return to their former state. The "victorious" vial of fluid continues to grow the egg.

The third, ovulatory phase of the cycle

The ovulatory phase, unlike the others, lasts very little - approximately 24-36 hours. It is during this period that women have a chance to become pregnant.

The hormone estrogen level in the third phase is at its highest level. During ovulation, the content of luteinizing hormone in the blood increases, but the concentration of follicle-stimulating substance decreases.

The peculiarity of the female body

What is menstruation? Once a month, the uterus builds up a new endometrium or lining, preparing to receive a fertilized egg. When it is not, the uterus begins to reject the pavement.

The menstrual period begins in girls when they turn 11-14, and lasts until about the age of 50 in women. Discharges become irregular at the age of 39-51, then cease altogether.

Start This natural phenomenon can cause a girl to worry. At first, girls can also bleed blood irregularly. After a year, everything will come back to normal.

Norm - this is 21.28.30 days. The menstruation cycle confirms that the girl is healthy, developed and capable of having offspring.

Women's cycle can lead a girl to pregnancy even from casual intercourse. Mom should prepare her daughter for adulthood so that there is no trouble.

What is the cycle of menstruation? A cycle is a period from the first day of blood discharge to the first day of the next bleeding.

Monthly cycle time:

  • average - 28 days
  • short - 21 days
  • long - 35 days
  • teenagers are not uncommon - 45 days. This is normal, then everything will be fine.

If you notice violations of the menstrual cycle, that is, it lasts for more than 7 days, then you should consult a doctor. He may prescribe a treatment.

Cycle control is provided by hormones: estrogen and progesterone. What it is? These are the most important female hormones.

  • Estrogen helps build up in the uterus of the endometrium.
  • Progesterone is formed in the middle of the cycle, that is, after ovulation.

Both hormones prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg.

Desquamation

During the desquamation period, the uterus actively rejects the endometrium (its outer layer). The process of menstruation begins. Usually menstruation is painful. Women feel nagging pain in the ovaries and nausea. Some people get dizzy.

The desquamation period will not occur if the egg has been fertilized.

The occurrence of discomfort at this time is associated with the disintegration and exfoliation of the functional uterine layer - the endometrium. It often leaves the body in chunks. Desquamation lasts 3-4 days.

What happens to a mature egg during this phase?

First, it destroys the wall of the follicle - and, with the help of villous epithelium, begins to move into the fallopian tube.

Then, if it is found with a sperm cell, then it becomes fertilized.

In the opposite case, the egg dies already a day after it leaves the ovary, after which it dissolves in the uterine mucosa.

  • Vaginal discharge became fluid in consistency. Sometimes they can be streaked with blood.
  • Her breasts became larger and began to hurt.
  • Increased basal temperature.
  • There were headaches.
  • There was a slight pain in the abdomen and lower back.
  • Increased libido.

In addition, to determine the presence or absence of ovulation, you can use home tests.

The onset of the ovulatory phase can be detected and on ultrasound examinationduring which the doctor will have to find out what the size of the ovaries and cervix, and in what condition they are now.

The fourth phase of the menstrual cycle - the phase of the corpus luteum, or luteal

Its duration is fourteen days.

After the egg cell leaves the vial with the liquid, a yellow colored body begins to grow at the site of its rupture. It produces estrogens, androgens, and progesterone, the “pregnancy hormone”.

So that a woman could become pregnant and then have a baby in due time, doctors can prescribe her to take special hormonal drugs.

What is the function of progesterone?

Thanks to him, the endometrium softens, becomes loose, increases in thickness. This is necessary so that the fertilized egg could penetrate it.

Pregnancy has come, or not - can be found only at the end of the luteal phase. Monthly, if the conception has happened, will not begin. The basal temperature will stay at 37.3.

You can determine if you have a pregnancy by homemade dough, which can be bought at any pharmacy, or donated blood at the clinic to the level of hCG.

Nausea, dizziness and other signs of the conception occurred much later.

Signs and symptoms of the luteal phase

If the egg cell was not fertilized by a sperm cell, then in the first days of the luteal phase, the girl will feel great. The same will feel a woman "in position."

The only sign that could indicate to her accomplished conception is the appearance of several droplets of blood on her underwear — implant bleeding — 7-10 days after intimate intimacy.

If the pregnancy has not occurred, then a few days before the menstruation, the woman’s condition may change. She may have PMS syndromewhich is often associated with the irritability and anxiety of a woman. Her breasts may swell, as well as minor abdominal pain.

Mid-cycle in women, what is it?

Approximately in the middle of the cycle, an egg cell capable of fertilization ripens in the female body, that is, ovulation occurs. If you are planning a pregnancy, then at this time the female body is ready to conceive a baby. How to determine this moment by day.

With a cycle of 28-30 days, ovulation occurs on the 14-15 day, if you count the onset of blood discharge.

Sexual intercourse these days most often ends in pregnancy. Buy tests to determine egg maturation. Testing should be done 24-48 hours before ovulation. If you do not plan to have children, then these days are considered the most dangerous.

But testing can fail, because there are many different factors that can affect the duration of a cycle. You can calculate the phases of the monthly cycle, if you measure daily basal temperature. Some women are counting on these days for conception, while others - on the contrary, not to get pregnant.

  1. Take an ordinary thermometer. Early in the morning, without getting out of bed, without making sudden movements (this is important!), Enter it into the rectum.
  2. Hold there for 7 minutes.
  3. Write down the readings.
  4. Based on daily readings, draw a schedule. On the top line, indicate the days of measurements, and the basal indicator on the side. At the junction, put a point, which then connect a straight line.

What happens in the second phase?

In the first phase of the cycle, the temperature is kept at about 36.8 ° C. 1-2 days before ovulation, it literally decreases by a fraction of a degree. Then the indicator starts to grow within 3 days and remains on such indicators until the end of the second phase (37.0-37.5 ° C). The body is preparing for pregnancy.

Attention! Any stress, malaise, alcohol, bad habits can change your schedule and ovulation may occur on another day, and behind it an unwanted pregnancy. What happens to the body if the fever lasts for two weeks? You can be congratulated on the onset of pregnancy!

The average duration of the second phase of the cycle, what does this mean for a woman? For 4-6 days you can conceive a child.

The luteal phase passes in two ways:

  • with a fertilized egg,
  • or without her, if she was not fertilized,
  • If conception has occurred, then the corpus luteum is produced, which actively secretes the hormone lutein. That he will support and "feed" the egg.

What does not allow a woman to grow old

These are hormones. From them often depends on the performance, youth, attractiveness and mood of a woman. In addition, the production of hormones changes almost every day during the process of blood secretion, so the mood in women will often change.

It is important to know the days of the cycle, the description of which will help you know yourself better. In 1 day the uterus throws out the endometrium, which means that the bleeding begins. A woman may experience discomfort, pain in the lower abdomen. To reduce the pain, you can take "No-shpu", "Buscopan", "Belastezin", "Papaverine."

2 day begins sweating. On day 3 the uterus is highly open, which may contribute to infection. On this day, a woman can also become pregnant, so sex should be protected.

From 4 days the mood begins to improve, working capacity appears, as the monthly ones are nearing completion.

What is the cycle by day in the second half? Days starting from the 9th to the 11th day considered dangerous, you may become pregnant. They say that at this time you can conceive a girl. And on the day of ovulation and immediately after it is suitable for conceiving a boy.

On day 12 increases the libido of women, which entails a strong sexual desire.

When does the second half begin?From the 14th day when the egg begins to move toward the male element, ovulation occurs. On day 16 a woman can gain weight as her appetite increases. Up to 19 days There is still the possibility of getting pregnant.

From the 20th day “safe” days begin. What are safe days? These days the possibility of getting pregnant is reduced.

Many women ask the question: can a woman be pregnant before the menstrual cycle?

The probability is small, but no one can give a full guarantee. The period of menstruation can vary under the influence of many factors. No woman has an even cycle throughout her life. It can even change a cold, fatigue or stress.

Many doctors warn that the body is able to "give out" repeated ovulation, therefore, even 1 day before menstruation, you can conceive a baby.

The women's cycle by the day, what happens these days, every woman should know, because it will show when you are ready to conceive, when you are passionate or, on the contrary, are cold, why the mood changes so much.

Sexual cycles

When you hear the ovarian-menstrual cycle, it is the cyclical nature of gonadotropin secretion that is established in the body. The concept of the sexual cycle includes a normal process that occurs in the ovaries under the influence of hormones, and the next one is menstruation.

Its duration is on average 28 +/- 7 days. What is the normal interval? Если оплодотворения не происходит, то как только этот цикл заканчивается, начинается период нового цикла. Сколько это длится? Промежуток между месячными, норма составляет от 21 до 35 дней. Но бывает и по-другому.Get a small calendar where you will celebrate the first day of the discharge.

It is worth noting that 14 days should pass between ovulation and the next menstrual period, but deviations of 1-2 days are possible. If you notice that your cycle is too short or too long, you should contact your gynecologist to find out the reasons.

Violation of cyclicity can indicate diseases of the sexual sphere. When does cycle lengthening begin? The cycle can be extended only after 45 years, as there are changes in the process of maturation of the egg.

Sometimes a woman may notice bloody discharge after her period. This should not be!

A drop of blood can only stand out at the time of ovulation. If you notice a sudden discharge, do not treat yourself - contact your doctor immediately!

Phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Names:

  • Menstrual (desquamation phase)
  • Postmenstrual (estrogenic, proliferative, reparative or follicular)
  • Premenstrual (progestin, luteal, secretory phase, pre-pregnancy).

Menstrual phase Lasts an average of 4 days. The first day of the cycle is the beginning of endometrial rejection. These days, progesterone is absent, and estrogen has not yet formed.

Postmenstrual phase - starts from the 5th day of the ovarian cycle, ends 1-2 days after ovulation. Ovulation accounts for the middle of the cycle. In this phase, the growth and development of follicles occurs. During the development of follicles, a large amount of estrogen is produced.

Premenstrual phase Lasts 12-14 days. The high level of progesterone in these days creates favorable conditions for implantation of the embryo.

The graph shows the period of menstruation, when you can get pregnant.

The first menstruation in girls

Mom should go with her daughter all the stages of her growing up, including the beginning of her period. First of all, it is necessary to explain what is monthly in girls. The simplest explanation is that this phenomenon is inherent in nature and you should not be afraid of it. Be sure to explain - what is the duration of the menstrual cycle.

It is important for a girl to know the monthly phases, because in their middle a girl can become pregnant, which is very undesirable for an immature organism. What phase is considered the most dangerous, every teenager should also be aware of this.

About how menstruation occurs, it is written above on the test. This process is the same as for an adult woman, and for a girl. But if an adult woman already knows what symptoms precede her, then the teenager should be clearly explained.

Before menstruation, there are such phenomena:

  • pulling pain in the sacrum, often in the lower back,
  • headaches,
  • fatigue, weakness
  • nipple sensitivity
  • weight gain
  • sometimes there is a discharge of mucous secretions.

Highlight by day:

  • 1 day - scanty discharge,
  • 2.3 day - abundant
  • 4.5 day - reduction of discharge,
  • 6-7 days - termination of menstruation.

Dear mothers, when your daughter is 10-11 years old, start talking about the approximation of the natural process. Teach us to use pads and other personal care products. The main thing is to talk on the subject of early pregnancy and its consequences, so that your daughter's life would be joyful and without unnecessary problems.

Content

The duration of a woman's menstrual cycle (on average) is 28 [3] ± 7 days.

The cycle duration is determined by the physiological processes in the woman's body.

Menarche - the first menstrual cycle - is the central event in the period of sexual development, indicating the ability of the female body to reproduce. In women, the average age of the onset of menarche is considered to be 12-14 years, with a norm from 9 to 15 years: 9 years - early menarche, after 15 years - primary amenorrhea. The time of onset of the first menstrual bleeding depends on factors such as heredity, nutrition, and general health.

Violations of the menstrual cycle can be caused by various factors: from teenage hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy and other natural causes to various external and internal stresses.

The cessation of menstruation occurs at the age of 40-58 years (on average, at 47-50 years), during the period of menopause, the extinction of reproductive function occurs. The time of menopause (menopause - a period characterized by irregularity or complete cessation of menstruation) depends largely on heredity, but some diseases and medical interventions can cause an early onset of menopause.

The processes occurring during the menstrual cycle can be described as phases corresponding to changes in the ovaries (follicular, ovulatory and luteal), and in the endometrium (menstrual, proliferative and secretory phases).

Regeneration

This is the second stage of menstruation, which is characterized by the regeneration of the surface layer of the epithelium. This process occurs due to the active reproduction of its cells. That is, the endometrium is restored during menstruation. The process of its regeneration begins approximately on the 5th day from the beginning of the critical days.

Proliferation

During this period, changes occur due to the process of maturation of the follicle. Endometrial proliferation continues until about the 14th day of the cycle.

This stage is characterized by the beginning of the growth of the endometrial glands. It thickens 3-5 times.

Under the influence of estrogen, the external uterine tissue begins to actively grow. Its mucous membrane becomes thicker, thereby restoring its functioning.

The proliferation period coincides with the onset of follicle growth.

Ovulation period

This is the second phase of the menstrual cycle, which is of great reproductive importance. Ovulation is characterized by the release of an egg from the follicle. This happens in the middle of the cycle, about the 14th day.

During this period, the body creates favorable opportunities for fertilization of the egg. A woman who wants to become a mother soon needs to remember that conception should occur within 2 days. The probability of becoming pregnant in this period is very high.

The release of an egg from the follicle provokes the body's enhanced production of luteinizing hormone. Also, this substance contributes to its maturation.

When the egg has matured, the follicular vesicle will burst, causing it to enter the fallopian tube and wait for a meeting with the spermatozoon.

In the torn follicle the yellow body will begin to ripen. Its growth will trigger the production of progesterone by the body, thereby creating the conditions for a successful conception.

Ovulation is the shortest phase of the monthly cycle. Its maximum duration is 2 days.

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